Sjøreisen, det frie hav og endeløsheten. De maritime topois teknologihistorie

  • Knut Ove Eliassen NTNU, Universitetet i Trondheim
Nøgleord: Topos, havet, sjøreiser, havari, skipbrudd, pirater, sjøkart, maritime teknologier, havrom, fritt hav, mare liberum, storm, det sublime.

Resumé

Early Romanticism established and developed a series of poetical maritime common places intended to convey the pure forceful and inhuman being of Nature. “Storm at Sea”, “The Endless Ocean” and “The monstrous deep” are but three of many topological variation of “The Ocean”, gaining widespread popularity in the 19th and the 20th centuries and gradually turning into cultural clichés. This article argues that the long history of maritime narratives contains a much richer and indeed both critical and instructive legacy of topological figures than the semantically rather limited legacy of Romantic poetry. Analyzing a wide range of examples spanning from Homer to Joseph Conrad by way of François Rabelais and Daniel Defoe, this article suggests that the topologies of maritime narratives are exemplary cases of what Mikhail M. Bakhtin called chrono-topes, that is, epistemologically and politically charged configuration of literary time-spaces. The ocean-spaces of the early modern sea narratives are explicitly informed by the technological and political realities of their times, thus yielding a rich material that reflects how our ways of experiencing the oceans cannot be separated from the protocols, tools and crafts that determines our interfaces with the world.

Forfatterbiografi

Knut Ove Eliassen, NTNU, Universitetet i Trondheim

Knut Ove Eliassen, f. 1959. professor, Dr. Philos. ved Institutt for språk og litteratur, NTNU, Universitetet i Trondheim. Arbeider på et større forskningsprojekt ved NTNU om representasjoner av havet i et historisk resurss- og forvaltningsperspektiv, 3Roceans. The High Seas and the Deep Oceans. Representations, resources and Regulatory Governance. Seneste bøker, Foucaults begreper, Spartacus forlag, Oslo 2016, Kvalitetsforståelser, kvalitetsbegrepet i samtidens kunst og litteratur (m/Øyvind Prytz), Fagbokforlaget, Bergen 2016.

Referencer

Bakhtin, M. M. «Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel». The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

Barthes, Roland. Barthes par lui-même. Paris: Seuil, 1975.

Beaulieu, Marie-Claire. The Sea in the Greek Imagination. Pennsylvania: Univ. of Penn­sylvania Press, 2016.

Lord Byron. «Childe Harolde’s Pilegrimage», http://knarf.english.upenn.edu/Byron/charold4.html

Columbus, Kristoffer. The Diario of Christopher Columbus’s First Voyage to America. Norman and London: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Conrad, Joseph, «The ‘Nigger’ of Narcissus». The ‘Nigger’ of Narcissus and other stories (Ed. J.H. Stape et al.). London: Penguin, 2007.

Cohen, Margareth. The Novel and the Sea. Princeton N.J.: Princeton UP, 2010.

Corbin, Alain. Le territoire du vide. L’occident et le désir du rivage. Paris: Flammarion, 1988.

Curtius, Ernst Robert. Europäische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter. Tübingen & Basel: Francke 1953.

Defoe, Daniel. A General History of the Pyrates. London: Facsimile Amazon, 2016.

Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

Exquemelin, Alexander. The Bucaneers of America, London: Penguin Books, 1969.

Frank, Søren. «Litteraturhistoriske fragmenter; billeder af havet». Aktuel Forskning, Odense: Syddansk Universitet, 2013.

Grotius, Hugo. Mare Liberum. Oslo: Vidarforlaget, 2009.

Haklyut, Richard. The Voyage of Sir Francis Drake Around the Whole Globe. London: Penguin, 2015.

Homer. Odysseen. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel. Kritik der Urteilskraft. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1982.

Kielland, Alexander. Garman & Worse. Samlede verker, bd. 1, Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1949.

Linebaugh, Peter & Marcus Rediker. The Many-headed Hydra. London: Verso, 2012.

Meiner, Carsten. La Carosse littéraire. Paris, P.U.F., 2008.

Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellans jordomseiling. Oslo: Aschehoug, 2004.

Rabelais, François. Le quart livre, in Gargantua et Pantagruel. Paris: Gallimard, 1994.

Rogers, Woodes. A Cruising Voyage Around the World, London 1712.

Schmitt, Carl. Land und Meer, (2. Utg. 1954). Stuttgart: Klein-Cotta, 1981.

Schmitt, Carl. Der Nomos der Erde, 5. oppl. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1950.

Sejersted, Jørgen. «Havet som symbol og realitet». I Sejersted, Jørgen, Vassenden, Eirik og Hamm, Christine. fl. Nordsjøen i norsk litteratur. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2015.

Smollett, Tobias. Roderick Random. London: Dent&Dutton, 1973.

Steinberg, Philip E. The Social Construction of the Ocean. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Treasure Island, Project Gutenberg.

Thrower, Norman J. W. Maps and Civilization. Cartography in Culture and Society, 3rd ed. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2008.

Woodard, Colin. The Republic of Pirates. London & New York: Pan MacMillan, 2007.

Publiceret
2017-08-28
Citation/Eksport
Eliassen, K. O. (2017). Sjøreisen, det frie hav og endeløsheten. De maritime topois teknologihistorie. K&K - Kultur Og Klasse, 45(123), 151-172. https://doi.org/10.7146/kok.v45i123.96834
Sektion
Artikler