K&K - Kultur og Klasse 2021-04-21T03:02:58+02:00 Jonas Ross Kjærgård Open Journal Systems Stranden 2021-04-21T03:02:54+02:00 Knut Ove Eliassen Carsten Meiner Christopher Messelt 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Den andre oppdagelsen av havet 2021-04-21T03:02:49+02:00 John R. Gillis 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Den allerede moderne strand 2021-04-21T03:02:44+02:00 Frits Andersen <p>Focusing on the beach’s function as a political and economic liminal zone of negotiation and transformation of identity, the article maps a specific temporal and spatial problem in relation to the beach as geographical and rhetorical topos. Contrary to the romantic invention of the European beach as a temporal refugium free of the metropolis’s modernity, Stevenson’s tales of stranded beachcombers on remote Pacific islands draw a surprising model of the beach as the source and scene of a post-imperialist simulation space based on speculation in risk. The modern and modernist disappointment of never finding the romantic beach translates into an endless search for the next and more distant beach, which at the same time is presented as historically primitive or not yet modern. In Stevenson’s tale this proleptic rhetoric is reversed: The beach is already modern and only more modern, the more distant from the metropolises it is.</p> <p>The article begins by listing the all-dominant topos in the Pacific literature descriptions of the beach, building on and continuing the classic locus amoenus and the dream of the ultimate beach. Stevenson’s tales are a critique of this romantic formation of the classic topos. This deconstruction is analyzed in two narratives that articulate two different geographical and rhetorical topoi, linked to respectively realism and allegory as literary form. In the final section of the article, the beach is briefly discussed as a decadent place: In Stevenson’s tales, the beach is not a place of renaissance, but a place encompassed by the apocalypse, the impending doom of the earth, and the end of the placeness of all places.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Nydelsesturisme in extremis 2021-04-21T03:02:39+02:00 Katrine Helene Andersen <p>In the 1950s, the Spanish beach initiated a process of radical change because the Franco regime decided to use the beach in an international branding of Spain as a tourist destination. This way the beach witnessed a cultural meeting between the Spaniards and the outsiders (the tourists) and an evolution of the infrastructure and cultural meaning of the Spanish beach began. In addition, international and national literature gave an account of this development and contributed to the symbolic understanding of beach life in Spain.</p> <p>This article shows how this evolution manifests itself in literary works by Carmen Laforet, Juan Goytisolo, Ernest Hemingway, James Michener and J.G. Ballard. It also argues that the Spanish beach due to its virgin nature as a tourist destination presupposed an open space, which demanded a new and particular meaning. The Spanish beach became synonymous with pleasure and sensuality and formed a parallel universe, which contrasted with the political reality of Spain. This development was taken to extremes in the literary testimonies and, it is argued, that the literary afterlife of the beach contributes to the cultural understanding of beach life in Spain today.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Sous la plage, les pavés! 2021-04-21T03:02:35+02:00 Tore Rye Andersen <p>Throughout literary history the beach has often functioned as a utopian counterimage to the purposeful rationality which has shaped our society since the Enlightenment. However, during the 20th Century cracks and fissures have appeared in literature’s utopian ideas of and depictions of the beach. This tendency is closely aligned with the general waning of the utopian ideas that critics like Russel Jacoby find in late capitalism. At the same time, other critics, including Fredric Jameson and Miguel Abensour, insist on the continued relevance of utopia. Through a critical dialogue with some of these critics, the article analyzes two American 21st Century novels whose depictions of the beach combine utopian and dystopian impulses in complex ways: Cormac McCarthy’s <em>The Road</em> (2006) and Thomas Pynchon’s <em>Inherent Vice</em> (2009). Both novels contain the same unusual movement: In the beginning of the stories, both authors depict the beach in a positive fashion that draws on traditional notions of the beach as a utopian refuge. During the stories, however, the utopian ideas are gradually dismantled, and rather than serving as a desirable endgoal, in both novels the fragile refuge of the beach ends up functioning as a dystopian reminder of what has been lost. The article analyzes the complex tensions that characterize this figure of the beach as promised utopia but actual dystopia.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Den ”danske friske strand” og 1800-tallets landskabsmaleri 2021-04-21T03:02:30+02:00 Susanne Bangert <p>Beaches [<em>strand,-e</em>] are arguably the central and most important feature of the geography of Denmark. The country has a coastline of over 7000 km. Some of these beaches are the sand-<em>strande</em>, which today in Danish and other languages are close to synonymous with ‘beach’, implying sand beach with space for bathing and leisure. However, there are many other types as the origin of beach in English denotes, but during the 19th century these were ousted. Landscape painting in the 19th century, being central in defining a national identity – and a national landscape – bears witness also to - what became – debarred beaches. With an interdisciplinary approach, the article looks at the evidence of the “strand” in etymology, cartography, geography and landscape painting in the 19th century. It explores the different usage of <em>strand</em> over time, and in general language as opposed to the geographical terminology. It appears, that it is the general term coast, which encompass the wider concept; and by using it, these other and often ousted types do appear in the landscape paintings. Only, since they figure as depictions of the general concept coast, they emphasize how earlier well-regarded <em>strand</em> types are presently relatively disregarded. As a concluding remark, the article suggests reconsiderations of those coastal parts in the larger perspective of the ‘national’ nature, nature preservation and identity.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Livets mening på Lakolk strand 2021-04-21T03:02:25+02:00 Jeppe Barnwell <p><em>Ved havet</em> (“At the Seaside”, 1978) by the Danish author Peter Seeberg (1925-99) is a complex novel that portrays approximately 40 people on a day at the beach of Rømø Island. It has often either been construed as a biblically inspired narrative or expounded in the light of a Nietzschean <em>amor fati</em> (love of faith). As an alternative, I suggest an interpretation grounded on a conception of the beach as a particular and privileged space, eternal yet open and liable to change, which allows a plurality of voices and views to coexist peacefully in what I call a horizontal open-mindedness. I argue that the novel grapples with a classic modernistic idea about existence—and in particular a symbolistic idea about transcendence—but that it does it in a new, more sensorial and inclusive way. By comparing the novel to, among other things, an unpublished essay on “the meaning of life on Lakolk Beach,” I propose a reading that points towards a new postmodern “realism” in the writings of Seeberg and perhaps in Danish literature on the whole.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Ét sted, to topoi 2021-04-21T03:02:58+02:00 Christian Dahl <p>This article explores the beach as literary topos in ancient Greek literature from Homer to the Greek novels of late antiquity. References to beaches are ubiquitous in Greek literature but their literary representation tends to come in two distinct topological groups. Either Greek writers present the beach as a liminal place, as an existential cul-de-sac, where heroes express their loneliness and loss with tragic pathos, or instead they present the beach as a contact zone of encounters and adventure. The article will demonstrate the continuity and variability of these two topoi by comparing a number of literary examples. In a broader theoretical perspective, the differences between the two topoi and their literary qualities correlate with two distinctly different conceptions of the literary topos: on the one hand the rhetorical topology of Ernst Robert Curtius and on the other hand Mihail Bachtin’s narratological theory of the chronotope.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Strandens topologier 2021-04-21T03:02:21+02:00 Knut Ove Eliassen <p>Beaches are the order of the day, ecologically, politically, and economically. Globally, the world’s population emigrates to the shorelines. The predicament referred to as the Anthropocene has made apparent the complexity of beaches as nature-culture-hybrids – ecotones – where biotopes and cultural practices meet, intersect and blend. Whether the issue at stake is production, pastime or pollution, the topicality of the beach remains unquestionable.</p> <p>Drawing on E.R. Curtius’ historical study of topology and anthropologist Tim Ingold’s notion of taskscape the article identifies, analyses and discusses clusters of topoi lifted from the cultural history – literature, visual arts – of the beach. From the beaches of Troy by way of the Scheveningen beach of Dutch painters and the sun worshippers of mass tourism to the plastic beach of the 21st century, the ambition is to sketch out the many complexities that inform the Western conception of the beach, how they have had and still have an immediate bearing on the way we organize our life worlds and how the beach becomes a nexus for a permanently ongoing negotiation of the nature culture divide.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Stranden hos Elena Ferrante 2021-04-21T03:02:16+02:00 Marius Warholm Haugen <p>This article makes a topocritical reading of the Mediterranean beach in four works by the Italian contemporary novelist Elena Ferrante: <em>L’amore molesto</em> (1992), <em>La figlia oscura</em> (2006), <em>La spiaggia di notte</em> (2007) and <em>L’amica geniale</em> (2011-2014). The topocritical approach is here to be understood as the examination of the role played by geographical places in the formation of literary themes. The article argues that the beach as a setting has an important formative function in the development of key themes in Ferrante’s works, related to complex mother-daughter relations, gender roles, and social class. The analysis reveals how the texts mobilise and play with a set of culturally and historically conditioned perceptions of the beach: the border zone, the liminal area, the free zone, and the domesticated landscape. These perceptions serve to construct the beach as a symbolically charged landscape, which in turn helps shape the psychological, emotional, and social processes that the literary characters go through. The notion of the liminal area is particularly important, turning the beach into an emblematic place for the author’s thematization of in-between-ness.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Mellom vrak og strand 2021-04-21T03:02:10+02:00 Sarah Dahle Hermanstad <p>Ever since Arnold van Gennep introduced the concept of <em>liminality</em> in 1909, it has been used in a huge variety of different contexts and on different subjects. The beach has particularly been related to the idea of a liminal zone in the landscape, a place betwixt and between, concerning land and sea, but also on the border of human conduct and behavior. In this article the concept of liminality has been used to understand the role of shipwrecks and salvaging activities, among the inhabitants of the Norwegian islands of Hitra and Frøya during the 18th and 19th centuries.</p> <p>Liminality can be useful in understanding how shipwrecks became a part of a coastal landscape shaped by unpredictable forces. Not only the ship, but the salvagers and the beach themselves all went<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>through a transformation: a liminal experience. These experiences could be spontaneous or devised, something that happened to you or something you did to yourself, but either way salvaging would become the result of liminal experiences in a liminal landscape. The shipwreck was the token of a way of living in an unpredictable environment. Shipwrecks could become a viable recourse through legal salvaging, or through the right of wreck on the foreshore, which constituted a separate area of the beach. The deadly force of nature that transformed ships to wrecks, was also the same life-bringing force that made life possible. The liminal and the unpredictable was in other words the very foundation of the coastal community.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Den norske litterære stranden 2021-04-21T03:02:06+02:00 Christopher Messelt <p>After the installment of recreational seaside resorts in England in the 18th and 19th century, the beach soon manifests as a modern version of the literary topos <em>locus amoenus</em>. A similar following is seen in Norway in the first half of the 20th century, where the beach in the novel is expressed as a place for recreation, erotic adventures and bathing in the sea and under the sun.</p> <p>Having this development as a backdrop, I analyze excerpts from three contemporary Norwegian novels. With attention to an increasing income of waste and the growth of private housebuilding, the novels express aspects of the more negative sides of what initially made the beach a locus amoenus. But this is not unambiguously. The beach is also a good place.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>The article shows that even in a time span of nearly a hundred years, literature bear witness to and articulates how beaches’ identities and the use of them is dependent on a given times political, economic, ideologic and cultural influences, which means that how the beach will be characterized in the future are being negotiated as we speak.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse) Fortidens fysiognomi 2021-04-21T03:02:01+02:00 Inge Lise Mogensen Bech 2020-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forfatterne og tidsskrift (K&K - Kultur og Klasse)