K&K - Kultur og Klasse 2018-05-15T10:30:52+02:00 Jonas Ross Kjærgård Open Journal Systems Skyld og skam i Skandinavien 2018-05-15T10:20:27+02:00 Elisabeth Oxfeldt Devika Sharma 2018-05-15T10:20:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Klagesangen over skammens død 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Jill Locke <p>Denne bog handler om et fænomen, jeg kalder Klagesangen over skammens død. Klagesangen er en nostalgisk historie om en fiktiv fortid, der repræsenterer en længsel efter myternes sted og tid, hvor skam sikrede og regulerede det sociale liv. Den fungerer som en fortælling om civilisationens forfald, der udtrykker en frygt for ubundne, autoktone, selvskabende og selvbekræftende subjekter, der forvolder ødelæggelse af den sociale orden og status quo. Disse subjekter benævnes og disciplineres som ”skamløse” trusler, der drives af et uhæmmet og ureguleret begær efter at tilfredsstille deres egne behov uden noget hensyn til andre. De beskrives som blottet for refleksion, dømmekraft og respekt for andre, og de karakteriseres som naturkræfter – brusende floder eller det stormfulde hav, der har brug for civilisationens diger, dæmninger og kanaler til at inddæmme deres uovervejede og uciviliserede drifter og lidenskaber.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Er skam en moralsk følelse? En sammenligning af individuel og gruppebaseret skam 2018-05-15T10:26:48+02:00 Alba Montes Sánchez <p>Is shame a moral emotion? After the Muhammad cartoons controversy, many Danes argued that freedom of speech should be limited by a sense of decency, that insulting Islam for the sake of insult was shameful. Ten years later, the Danish government’s anti-refugee policy led some to say they were ashamed of being Danish. Here shame is given moral significance as the guardian of decency. However, psychologists like Tangney and Dearing have claimed that shame is morally counter-productive: it makes us react in antisocial ways, covering up our failings, shunning contact with others or lashing out in anger. Some have recently argued that the rise of right-wing populism in many Western nations is fueled by the psychological mechanism of transforming shame into rage. This seems a case of shame backfiring to cause antisocial behavior.<br /> In this paper, I seek to illuminate this dilemma by analyzing how self and others relate in shame. I defend that shame is an emotion of social self-consciousness, where one’s own self-assessment is fundamentally mediated by others. It may pull us in moral and immoral directions, but it is anyway part of the sensibilities that make us moral. My central examples, though, are cases of group-based shame. Is shame equally appropriate, and does it have the same significance, when it is group-based? I argue that the conditions of appropriateness change, but the structure of the emotion and its moral significance remains unchanged.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "En gift i blodet": Følelsesøkonomier i de dansk-grønlandske relationer 2018-05-15T10:30:52+02:00 Kirsten Thisted <p>Inspired by Sara Ahmed, the article analyzes how long-established affective economies still dominate post-colonial relations between Danes and Greenlanders. Affective relationships between Greenlanders and Danes are embedded in historically inherited, asymmetric political, and financial power relations. While the political and economic conditions often are subject to analysis because data in these fields is relatively easy to access, it is much harder to access material that illuminates affective relationships. The article focuses on an email correspondence between two women, each of whom has a prominent place in the Danish-Greenlandic cultural debate. The two women know each other in advance and are both eager for the communication to succeed. It turns out not to be quite so simple. The analysis shows how the Dane, contrary to her own intentions, maintains the Greenlander in the role as the object of the Danish, evaluative and normative, gaze. The Greenlander protests against this and tries to renegotiate their positions so that the Greenlanders become subjects of their own actions and the history of Greenland. The article argues that it is not possible to understand the current political discussions, including debates on large scale projects, uranium extraction, and independence, unless these affects and their historicity are taken into account. A conversation about reconciliation must also begin here.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stå på tomma torg: Hinder för tillhörighet i bosnisk migrationslitteratur 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Fedja Wierød Borcak <p>The immigration of Bosnians to the Scandinavian countries in connection to the war in the 1990s is largely seen as a success. Aspects such as high employment and education levels has been foregrounded as indicating integration and personal accomplishment, especially among the younger population. However, the literature produced by Bosnian immigrant authors tells a different story, which focuses rather on personal hardships and obstacles in the affective and social “positionality” of the immigrant in the Scandinavian topography. Regarding texts by authors such as Alen Mešković, Bekim Sejranović, and Adnan Mahmutović, the article surveys recurrent themes associated with the immigrant’s inability to create belonging in the host country, such as the encounter with immigrant authorities or the continuous non-contact with Scandinavians. While the texts are not typical examples of literary “welfare criticism”, the article tries to suggest some ways in which these texts produce critique of mechanisms in the Scandinavian welfare state model.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Vi ler ikke av deg, vi ler med deg!": Racehumor og skam i norske flygtningefilm 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Elisabeth Oxfeldt <p>The article analyzes Jan Vardøen’s House of Norway (2016) and Rune Denstad Langlo’s Welcome to Norway! (2016) as multicultural and multiracial film comedies that set out to ridicule and shame Norwegians at the height of the Syrian refugee crisis. My focus is on their portrayal of various forms of Norwegian racism. I start out by situating the films within a Norwegian social and political landscape. I then outline my theoretical and methodological point of departure (Bergson, Berlant and Ngai) and turn to relevant comedy subgenres. In my analysis of House of Norway, I discuss the shaming of Norwegians who, in their encounter with refugees, tend to be overly nationalistic, insisting on a Norwegian identity rooted in 19th-century national romanticism. In the case of Welcome to Norway!, the shameless Norwegian is simply cold and cynical. Ultimately, my point is that the films expose many relevant forms of Norwegian racism without being entirely racially innocent themselves. As comedies dealing with the topic of racism, they cannot be expected to be entirely innocent either, in part because laughter and shame are not just one thing, serving one function. Audiences may laugh for various reasons, feel shame for various reasons, and use that shame to strengthen a community – in ways that variously include and exclude the other. The comedies are nevertheless significant cultural objects, exposing Norwegian racisms as they come to the fore in the current encounter with refugees.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SKAM som social utopi 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Christa Lykke Christensen <p>In this article I discuss the Norwegian teen drama series Shame, broadcast by the public service broadcaster NRK 2015-2017. In the Scandinavian countries the series was targeted to a young audience around 16 years old but it became extremely popular among viewers of all ages, among men and women, and moreover, streaming made it available globally. The article discusses TV production for a youth audience within a public service and a commercial media system. The argument is that the series, expressing the ethos of social responsibility of Scandinavian public service broadcasting, represents a social utopia and that it in several ways has much in common with the long tradition for Scandinavian realistic drama production for young audiences. Thus, the article argues that the drama series of Shame is based on a narrative of inclusion – in contrast to popular TV-shows for a young audience on commercial channels, for instance reality gameshows, which are often based on a narrative of exclusion. The theoretical framework draws on Erving Goffman’s micro-sociological considerations of the social dramaturgy of face work, and is inspired by the theory of recognition by Axel Honneth. Analytically, the face work and interactions of the main characters of the Shame-series are used to exemplify how the drama series creates a narrative of inclusion while addressing critical issues such as face loss, emotional rejections, and shame. In conclusion, the series is an example of successful public service programming that is able to address young people.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Blodig skam 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Una Mathiesen Gjerde <p>Since Aristotle’s time, menstruation has been a stigmatised bodily fluid. It has been a source of shame and guilt for women for centuries. In this article, I focus on how Scandinavian artists since the 1970’s have contributed to make menstruation public through menstrual art. There is wide diversity within Scandinavian menstrual art. Some artists address the menstrual stigma directly in their work, while others use the semiotic and symbolic power of menstrual blood – as abject – to provoke and raise political awareness on feminist issues. I focus on menstrual art in relation to notions of shame and guilt. I argue that menstrual art has contributed to reducing destructive menstrual shame amongst Scandinavian women, even though this may not have been the artists’ main intention in creating the work. Even though the menstrual stigma has been reduced drastically – especially the last five years – menstrual shame has not disappeared. Thus, menstrual art can still contribute to reducing and preventing women from feeling ashamed of their periods. As long as half of humanity menstruates one-third of their life time, the menstrual discussion and menstrual art will remain topics of interest and importance.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Skammen og dens brødre: Arbejdsløshed, maskulinitet og klasseskam 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Mathies Græsborg Aarhus <p>This article is about how it feels to be an unemployed man today. After briefly accounting for certain historical developments that have shaped the contemporary unemployed male experience, the article focuses on one feeling central to this experience: shame. The article argues that unemployment is increasingly attached to shame, rather than guilt, as the unemployed self perceives itself as inadequate in relation to a neoliberal ideal of entrepreneurship. Using sociological theories about class shame, the article proceeds to analyze two literary representations of unemployed men in a contemporary Danish context: Lau Aaen’s Dagpengeland and Jens Blendstrup’s Slagterkoner og Bagerenker. The shame in Dagpengeland breeds a critical attitude towards the shaming unemployment institutions of the welfare state, while Slagterkoner og Bagerenker explores the psychological processes of a form of shame turned into xenophobic resentment. Unemployed male shame is thus described as a multifaceted feeling; destructive in the sense that it tears down men’s ingrained identities and solidarities but productive in the sense that it affectively confronts the ashamed subject with certain social inequalities and injustices.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Arvesyndens politiske økonomi: Fra Søren Kierkegaard til Roswitha Scholz 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Dominique Routhier <p>Debt—as it has been frequently noted—seems inextricably tied, semantically as well as historically, to the notion of guilt. Less attention, however, has been paid to the Christian origin of this guilt complex in the doctrine of ‘the original sin’. The present article argues that Kierkegaard’s critique of the doctrine of original sin, formulated on the brink of high capitalism, can be read as a critical reflection on the uses and abuses of the concept of history to suit doctrinaire ends. Kierkegaard’s critique then, its shortcomings notwithstanding, pertains to a wider problematic concerning the ideological instrumentality of historico-philosophical myths of origin. In the history of capitalism, as Marx pointed out, the doctrine of the original sin is transposed from the sphere of religion to that of political economy, where it figures as ‘original accumulation’. Within this critical framework—and drawing on recent Marxist feminist critiques from Silvia Federici and Roswitha Scholz, respectively—the article further pursues to expose and critique the ideological default of the idea of an original accumulation.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gælden, gaven og geden: Om skyldnere og humanitær økonomi 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Devika Sharma <p>This article centers on the complex relationship between debt and gifts – or, more to the point, between the neoliberal economy of debt as diagnosed by Maurizio Lazzarato, among others, and humanitarian subjectivity; Between debt government and humanitarian government. Drawing on the work of Ananya Roy and looking to objects of debt/humanitarian relief such as Greece and Haiti, I suggest that what Lazzarato terms ‘indebted man’ today co-exists in hitherto unexamined ways with ‘humanitarian man’, and that these two forms of subjectivity in fact share dispositions of guilt and shame. In order to further examine the guilty or ‘indebted’ disposition of everyday humanitarians I then continue to discuss a particular humanitarian product, namely the ‘charity goat’ and other third-party gifts. Here I draw in particular on Lilie Chouliaraki’s notion of post-humanitarianism in order to suggest that third-party charitable giving gives cultural form to the experience of indebtedness of the humanitarian gift-giver. This experience is, I finally suggest, part of a broader Scandinavian, but not exclusively Scandinavian, predicament of privilege.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antikapitalistisk, samtidskritisk og usamtidig kunsthistorieskrivning 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 Steen Nepper Larsen <p>Anmeldelse af Mikkel Bolt: Samtidskunstens metamorfose, 248 sider. Antipyrine, Aarhus, 2016.</p> 2018-05-15T10:20:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##