K&K - Kultur og Klasse https://tidsskrift.dk/kok The Editorial Board da-DK K&K - Kultur og Klasse 0905-6998 <p>Tidsskriftet følger dansk ophavsret.</p> Fiktionalitet, faktualitet og fake news https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118028 <p>I løbet af den amerikanske valgkamp i 2016, som ender med at Donald Trump bliver den 45. præsident i USA, får begrebet fake news ny betydning som en særlig politisk retorik. Med dette temanummer ønsker vi at sætte begrebet i en større sammenhæng såvel historisk som teoretisk, og som titlen på temanummeret antyder, mener vi, at det er frugtbart at tænke på tværs af de tre begreber fiktionalitet, faktualitet og fake news. Fake news er ikke på nogen entydig måde en traditionel fiktionsgenre eller blot at betragte som en faktualitetsgenre. I stedet belyser begreberne hinanden. </p> Henrik Skov Nielsen Karen Hvidtfeldt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 1 10 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118028 Rene toner, falske nyheter https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118030 <p>This article discusses skilling ballads as a news medium in the early modern period, and it suggests that in Scandinavia the news ballad was the most important journalistic genre for a broad public. Through a reading of ballads conveying news of fantastical creatures, the article considers how skilling ballads negotiated the borders between the true and the false, and how some of our contemporary mechanisms for revealing fake news can be detected in the early modern news ballads.</p> Siv Gøril Brandtzæg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 11 38 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118030 ”…at undersøge disse Rygters rette Grund førend de sætte Lid til vedkommende Rygtesmeds Fabrikater…” https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118031 <p>On the basis of the information panic about the Slave War of 1848 in Denmark and the professional ethics and discourse of modern journalism for the printed press of the late 19th century, the question of rumours, untruthfulness and related phenomena in media communication is investigated in a media history perspective. The information panic of 1848 exhibits common features as ’going viral’ within digital media culture. Print news reporting, along with the ethics and discourse of 19th century journalism, served as a means of containing and regulating the flow of information, which is set free again, however, with the emergence of digital media culture. On the basis of this example, I argue in favour of downscaling the status of print media culture as the norm for judging contemporary media culture, including phenomena like ‘fake news’.</p> Ulrik Lehrmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 39 58 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118031 Nyheder og/eller falske nyheder? https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118032 <p>Taking off from El prodigio de Alemania [The Wonder in Germany, 1634], a recently discovered collaborative play by Calderón and Coello about general Albrecht von Wallenstein, this article discusses the conception of factuality informing Golden Age dramatic representations of contemporaneous history. Vis-à-vis the recurrent critical disparagement of this type of drama as artistically inferior propaganda, I will demonstrate the dramatists’ delicate handling of the breaking news about Wallenstein’s death and their use of advanced aesthetic and performative devices to stimulate audience thinking about Wallenstein’s destiny: Why did he become a traitor? Highlighting the subtle doublespeak informing especially the epilogue and the protagonist’s great monologue, I will argue that the play is at once loyal and critical toward Habsburg policy: it follows the official explanation of the general’s murder — that he was planning high treason — yet at the same time demonstrates an essentially interrogatory conception of factuality that invites reflection on what is historical “truth”.</p> Sofie Kluge ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 59 82 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118032 Litteraturkritik, fankultur og affekt: Trump og Pynchons konspirationslæsere https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118033 <p>This article outlines the two cultures in the study of conspiracy culture, where social science disciplines provide one type of approach and cultural studies another. To make a claim for recovering the use of literature in the field, both to bridge the divide, if possible, and to suggest new critical directions for literary studies itself, the article offers a reading of two congruent conspiracy narrations, Donald Trump’s rhetoric and Thomas Pynchon’s novels. Both are examples of ambiguous narration, which may be taken at face value by one reader and invested with hidden significance by another, thus creating two closed-off epistemic bubbles – politically and critically. When critics have not been taking conspiracy fans, which could include esteemed literary figures like Pynchon, seriously, they have been guilty of closed reading. Fans themselves, though equally closed readers technically, offer avenues into affective and co-creative conspiracy readings which are, paradoxically, open to the reparative possibilities literature can have in a politically paranoid society.</p> Inger H. Dalsgaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 83 104 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118033 Fake news som livsstil https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118034 <p>The article presents an updated portrait of the controversial Russian writer and politician, Eduard Limonov (b. 1943), with a view to discussing him as at once an example of and a comment on contemporary conditions for art and politics in Russia under so-called developed Putinism. Based on Judith Butler’s definition of identity as constituted by performative acts, the article analyses Limonov’s varied activities throughout more than half a century as a coherent project insofar as he seems to be primarily concerned with creating the scandalous yet heroic identity of “Limonov”, disregarding in the process any distinction between fact and fiction. First, as an underground artist in the Soviet Union and exiled, scandalous writer, then a rebel and founder of the now banned National Bolshevik Party in post-Soviet Russia, and, finally, an activist and politician in Putin’s Russia, where he attempted to run for president in 2012. Previous attempts to pinpoint the ambiguous phenomenon of Limonov are discussed and used as a background for characterising his present predicament: the carefully created identity of “Limonov” seems to have been outmaneuvered by a political development very much in line with his own key policy issues, by a president successfully posing as exactly the kind of hero and saviour, “Limonov” was cast to be, and by a growing prevalence of and, consequently, indifference towards fake news.</p> Tine Roesen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 105 128 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118034 Poetisk viden? https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118035 <p>This article examines the current efforts to rethink the perception of facts and fiction and the relation between the two arising in both academia and literature. Bruno Latour’s repudiation of the modern division of subject and object implies that the hard facts of traditional science cannot be sharply dissociated from art and soft values. In tandem with Latour’s increasing influence in a number of academic disciplines, a strong engagement with factual matters has appeared in literature. The field of science and the field of aesthetics thus seem to approach each other from both sides, science leaning towards artistic practices and fiction leaning towards facts. In his search for an alternative knowledge acquisition, Latour turns to aesthetic devices. Following this lead, the aesthetic attention of Pejk Malinovski and the recently actualized Frank O’Hara and Robert Walser appears to insist on meeting things openly, in their specific situations and concrete exchanges, inspiring Latour’s call for a transformation of matters of fact into matters of concern. The question is, however, to what extent Latour’s perspective is able to make real scientific use of this kind of production of meaning. Considering Martin Heidegger’s and Hannah Arendt’s views on the relation of technology, knowledge, value, and art, it seems that Latour after all might not be that disengaged from modern philosophy and the modern stress on separation rather than mediation.</p> Johanne Gormsen Schmidt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 129 150 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118035 Angående bullshit og fake news https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118036 <p>Når vi har lært at genkende bullshit-kernen i <em>fake news</em>-anklager, kan vi forsøge at følge George Lakoffs <em>framing</em>-anbefaling om at undlade at reproducere og dermed styrke dem unødigt. I nogle tilfælde kan man måske have held med rammende og præcist at påpege bullshit, hvor det forekommer. Men det forudsætter dels en forståelse for, hvad bullshit er, og hvordan det virker, og dels at folk allerede har blik for værdien af sandhed og sandfærdighed. Så kampen mod fake news kan næppe vindes på kort sigt, men kræver både udbredt demokratisk dannelse og en veletableret sandhedsværdsættende kultur.</p> Rolf Hvidtfeldt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 151 166 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118036 Sønnetapene https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118743 <p>In 2015 and 2016, the sons of Australian singer and songwriter Nick Cave and of the Danish author Naja Marie Aidt both died in fall accidents related to substance-induced psychosis. Subsequently, Cave released the album “Skeleton Tree” (2016) and Aidt published the book “Har døden taget noget fra dig så giv det tilbage” (If death has taken something from you, then give it back) (2017), which can both be linked to how they worked through the deaths of their sons. This article discusses how texts with a similar topic can appear so different in form, and how they portray different ways of coping with the grieving process. Neither of the texts are poetry per se, but both use lyrical forms of expression that make it pertinent to use a poetic analysis approach. Cave’s song lyrics and Aidt’s poetic prose both express experiences where the use of various lyrical effects in a musical and visual context reveals different ways of dealing with grief. In both cases, repetition is a key aspect. This article shows how Skeleton Tree and If death has taken something from you, then give it back represent the elasticity of contemporary poetic writing that makes the genre suitable to render strong emotional experiences.</p> Linda Hamrin Nesby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 47 128 167 190 Litteraturen og samfundet https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118037 <p>Anmeldelse af Knut Ove Eliassen og Anne Fastrup (red.):&nbsp;Europæisk litteratur 1500-1800. Bind 3: Samfundet. Fra hoffet til byen.<br>Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2019</p> David Hasberg Zirak-Schmidt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 191 194 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118037 Med flâneuren i massedigitaliseringens labyrinter https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118038 <p>Anmeldelse af Nanna Bonde Thylstrup:&nbsp;<em>The Politics of Mass Digitization</em>.<br>Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2019.</p> Maja Bak Herrie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 195 198 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118038 Øyer i historien https://tidsskrift.dk/kok/article/view/118039 <p>Anmeldelse af Frits Andersen:&nbsp;<em>Sydhavsøen. Nydelsens geografi.</em><br>452 s. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2019.</p> Knut Ove Eliassen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 47 128 199 206 10.7146/kok.v47i128.118039