The Critical Spirit: Emotional and Moral Dimensions Critical Thinking

  • Katariina Holma University of Eastern Finland
Nøgleord: critical thinking, critical spirit, emotional, moral, political


In this article, I will introduce and explore the critical spirit component of critical thinking and defend it as significant for the adequate conceptualization of critical thinking as an educational aim. The idea of critical spirit has been defended among others by such eminent supporters of critical thinking as John Dewey, Israel Scheffler, and Harvey Siegel but has not thus far been explored and analyzed sufficiently. I will argue that the critical spirit has, in addition to cognitive, also moral and emotional dimensions. Finally, I will touch upon some critiques which see that critical thinking either does not or ought not to involve moral or emotional dimensions.


Katariina Holma, University of Eastern Finland
Adjunct Professor, Senior Researcher
Holma, K. (2015). The Critical Spirit: Emotional and Moral Dimensions Critical Thinking. Studier I Pædagogisk Filosofi, 4(1), 17-28.