Neither fascism nor democracy*

Contre-Attaque redux


  • Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen



The article presents and discusses André Breton and Georges Bataille’s Contré Attaque project in the mid-1930s where the two Surrealists sought to find a position that was both critical towards the emerging fascist movements, a Stalinized Communist Party and a crisis-ridden liberal democracy. The brief experiment will be used in an analysis of the new contemporary fascist tendencies that have been appearing during the last ten years in the West.


Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen

Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen is professor in Political Aesthetics at the University of Copenhagen. His research interests are the Situationist International, the politics of contemporary art and the revolutionary tradition. He is the author of, most recently, Late Capitalist Fascism (Polity, 2021), Hegel after Occupy (Sternberg Press, 2018) and Trump’s Counter-Revolution (Zero, 2018). He has contributed to journals such as New Formations, Rethinking Marxism and Third Text.


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Bolt Rasmussen, M. (2023). Neither fascism nor democracy*: Contre-Attaque redux. Peripeti, 20(38), 26–41.