COVID-19 nedlukningens betydning i et CrossFit fællesskab

Forfattere

  • Verena Lenneis Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3072-3790
  • Jeppe Klarskov Hansen Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet
  • Jesper Seemann Serritzlew Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet
  • Jonas Thorøe Olesen Institut for Medicin og Sundhedsteknologi, Aalborg Universitet
  • Ida Friis Thing Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2937-8640

Resumé

CrossFit er en af de hurtigst voksende fitnessbevægelser i Danmark og kendetegnet ved udøvernes intense workouts samt den høje grad af interaktion mellem deltagerne. Grundet COVID-19 pandemien og de tilhørende restriktioner har det ikke været muligt for CrossFit udøvere at opretholde deres vante træningsrutiner. Med afsæt i Randall Collins’ teori om interaktionsritualer undersøger artiklen, hvordan CrossFit udøvere har oplevet de forandrede træningsmuligheder, som COVID-19 nedlukningen og de efterfølgende restriktioner medførte, samt hvilken indflydelse de nye træningssituationer har haft på CrossFit fællesskabets sammenhængskraft. Artiklen understreger den store betydning, som ansigt-til-ansigt relationer har for idrætsdeltagelse, der ikke kan erstattes af digitale træningsmuligheder.

Referencer

Andersson, K., & Andreasson, J. (2021). Being a group fitness instructor during the covid-19 crisis: Navigating professional identity, social distancing, and community. Social Sciences, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10040118

Bailey, B., Benson, A. J., & Bruner, M. W. (2019). Investigating the organisational culture of CrossFit. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(3), 197–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2017.1329223

Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Methods. Prentice-Hall.

Bøje, C., & Eichberg, H. (1994). Idrættens tredje vej - om idrætten i kulturpolitikken. Klim.

Bowes, A., Lomax, L., & Piasecki, J. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on elite sportswomen. Managing Sport and Leisure, 0(0), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2020.1825988

Bowes, A., Lomax, L., & Piasecki, J. (2021). A losing battle? Women’s sport pre- and post-COVID-19. European Sport Management Quarterly, 0(0), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2021.1904267

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589–597. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2020). One size fits all? What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 00(00), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238

Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Weate, P. (2016). Using Thematic Analysis in Sport and Exercise Research. In B. Smith & A. C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise (pp. 191–205). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315762012.

Caputo, E. L., & Reichert, F. F. (2020). Studies of Physical Activity and COVID-19 during the Pandemic: A Scoping Review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(12), 1275–1284. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0406

Carter, A., & Alexander, A. C. (2021). “It’s a Whole Different Atmosphere”: A Qualitative Examination of Social Support as a Facilitator of Exercise During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Health Promotion Practice, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248399211013005

Clarkson, B. G., Culvin, A., Pope, S., & Parry, K. D. (2020). Covid-19: Reflections on threat and uncertainty for the future of elite women’s football in England. Managing Sport and Leisure, 0(0), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2020.1766377

Collins, R. (2014). Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton University Press.

Collins, R. (2016). Micro-sociology of sport: interaction rituals of solidarity, emotional energy, and emotion al domination. European Journal for Sport and Society, 13(3), 197–207.

Collins, R. (2020). Social distancing as a critical test of the micro-sociology of solidarity. American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 8(3), 477–497. https://doi.org/10.1057/

s41290-020-00120-z

Crockett, M. C., & Butryn, T. (2018). Chasing Rx: A spatial ethnography of the crossfit gym. Sociology of Sport Journal, 35(2), 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2017-0115

Dawson, M. C. (2017). CrossFit: Fitness cult or reinventive institution? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(3), 361–379. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690215591793

Durkheim, É. (1915). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Free Press.

Edmonds, S. E. (2020). Geographies of (Cross)fitness: an ethnographic case study of a CrossFit Box. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(2), 192–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1602559

Eske, M. (2021). Danskernes motions- og sportsvaner under endnu en gradvis genåbning. Notat 5: Fortsat lang vej til normalt aktivitetsniveau. https://idan.dk/vidensbank/downloads/danskernes-motions-og-sportsvaner-under-endnu-en-gradvis-genaabningnotat-5/59e860ee-743a-4e44-9050-ad1700a16b77

Gianzina, E. A., & Kassotaki, O. A. (2019). The benefits and risks of the high-intensity CrossFit training. Sport Sciences for Health, 15(1), 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0521-7

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Pantheon.

Hargreaves, E. A., Lee, C., Jenkins, M., Calverley, J. R., Hodge, K., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2021). Changes in Physical Activity Pre-, During and Post-lockdown COVID-19 Restrictions in New Zealand and the Explanatory Role of Daily Hassles. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(February), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.642954

Hauff, C., Gipson, C., Bennett, H., & Malcom, N. L. (2021). Badass CrossFit Women; Redefining Traditional Femininity, One Handstand Push-Up at a Time. In L. K. Fuller (Ed.), Sportswomen’s Apparel in the United States (pp. 231–248). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45477-7_14

Iacono, V. Lo, Symonds, P., & Brown, D. H. K. (2016). Skype as a tool for qualitative research interviews. Sociological Research Online, 21(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.3952

Ibsen, B., & Høyer-Kruse, J. (2021). Den organiserede idræts betydning for fysisk aktivitet under Corona. Forum for Idræt, 36(2), 1–32.

Ibsen, B., Høyer-Kruse, J., & Elmose-Østerlund, K. (2021). Danskernes bevægelsesvaner og motiver for bevægelse. https://www.sdu.dk/-/media/files/om_sdu/centre/c_isc/danmark_i_bevaegelse/danskernesbevaegelsesvaner-rapport.pdf

Jensen, J.-O. (2014). Skoleidrættens værdier og kultur. In B. B. Høj, I. Maibom, & T. N. Rasmussen (Eds.), Idrættens værdier og kultur. Teori og praksis.

Jowett, A., Peel, E., & Shaw, R. (2011). Online Interviewing in Psychology: Reflections on the Process. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 8(4), 354–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2010.500352

Kaur, H., Singh, T., Arya, Y. K., & Mittal, S. (2020). Physical Fitness and Exercise During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Enquiry. In Frontiers in Psychology (Vol. 11). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.590172

Kerry, V. J. (2017). The construction of hegemonic masculinity in the Semiotic Landscape of a CrossFit ‘Cave.’ In Visual Communication (Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp. 209–237). https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357216684081

Kirkegaard, H., Eske, M., & Rask, S. (2020). DANSKERNES MOTIONS- OG SPORTSVANER. https://idan.dk/vidensbank/downloads/danskernes-motions-og-sportsvaner-under-coronanedlukningen-del-1/6515aeed-a9ef-437e-89b3-abb400822dd8

Kirkegaard, K. (2007). Overblik over den danske fitness-sektor. En undersøgelse af danske fitnesscentre. https://www.idan.dk/vidensbank/udgivelser/overblik-over-den-danske-fitnesssektor-–-en-undersoegelse-af-danske-fitnesscentre/98f5d02b-88f9-47eba770-999b00a37f0f

Knapp, B. A. (2015). Gender representation in the CrossFit Journal: a content analysis. Sport in Society, 18(6), 688–703. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2014.982544

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2015). Interview. Det kvalitative forskningsinterview som håndværk. Hans Reitzels Forlag.

Lautner, S. C., Patterson, M. S., Spadine, M. N., Boswell, T. G., & Heinrich, K. M. (2021). Exploring the social side of CrossFit: a qualitative study. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 25(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-08-2020-0051

Markula, P., & Pringle, R. (2006). Foucault, sport and exercise. Power, knowledge and transforming the self. Routledge.

Markula, P., & Silk, M. (2011). Qualitative Research for Physical Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. Meyer, J., Morrison, J., & Zuniga, J. (2017). The Benefits and Risks of CrossFit: A Systematic Review. Workplace Health and Safety, 65(12), 612–618. https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079916685568

Montalvo, A. M., Shaefer, H., Rodriguez, B., Li, T., Epnere, K., & Myer, G. D. (2017). Retrospective injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 16(1), 53–59.

Mutz, M., Müller, J., & Reimers, A. K. (2021). Use of digital media for home-based sports activities during the covid-19 pandemic: Results from the German spovid survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094409

Nash, M. (2018). ‘Let’s work on your weaknesses’: Australian CrossFit coaching, masculinity and neoliberal framings of ‘health’ and ‘fitness.’ Sport in Society, 21(9), 1432–1453. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2017.1390565

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.

Pickett, A. C., Goldsmith, A., Damon, Z., & Walker, M. (2016). The Influence of Sense of Community on the Perceived Value of Physical Activity: A Cross-Context Analysis. Leisure Sciences, 38(3), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2015.1090360

Pilgaard, M. (2009). Sport og motion i danskernes hverdag. Idrættens Analyseinstitut. http://www.idan.dk/vidensbank/downloads/sport-og-motion-i-danskernes-hverdag/138feabd-6941-413c-86f0-9c7600f4a58c

Pilgaard, M., & Rask, S. (2016). Danskernes motions- og sportsvaner 2016. In Idrættens Analyseinstitut (Issue September). Idrættens Analyseinstitut. http://www.idan.dk/vidensbank/downloads/danskernes-motions-og-sportsvaner-2016/9a94e44b-4cf5-4fbeac89-a696011583d5

Podmore, M., & Ogle, J. P. (2018). The lived experience of CrossFit as a context for the development of women’s body image and appearance management practices. Fashion and Textiles, 5(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40691-017-0116-y

Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon & Schuster.

Rask, S., & Eske, M. (2020). Status På Danskernes Idrætsdeltagelse 2020. https://idan.dk/vidensbank/downloads/status-paa-danskernes-idraetsdeltagelse-2020/cb5a3970-42f4-4199-ba12-aca800dad3c4

Rodríguez, M., García-Calleja, P., Terrados, N., Crespo, I., Del Valle, M., & Olmedillas, H. (2021). Injury in CrossFit®: A Systematic Review of Epidemiology and Risk Factors. In Physician and Sportsmedicine. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2020.1864675

Schrijnder, S., van Amsterdam, N., & McLachlan, F. (2021). ‘These chicks go just as hard as us!’ (Un)doing gender in a Dutch CrossFit gym. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(3), 382–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220913524

Souter, G., Tonge, A., & Culvin, A. (2021). The impact of Covid-19 on the mental health of professional footballers. Managing Sport and Leisure, 0(0), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2021.1877569

Stockwell, S., Trott, M., Tully, M., Shin, J., Barnett, Y., Butler, L., McDermott, D., Schuch, F., & Smith, L. (2021). Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: A systematic review. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000960

Thorpe, H. (2011). Snowboarding bodies in theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.

Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight ”big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837–851. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800410383121

Washington, M. S., & Economides, M. (2016). Strong Is the New Sexy: Women, CrossFit, and the Postfeminist Ideal. Journal of Sports and Social Issues, 40(2), 143–161.

Whitcomb-Khan, G., Wadsworth, N., McGinty-Minister, K., Bicker, S., Swettenham, L., & Tod, D. (2021). Critical Pause: Athletes’ Stories of Lockdown During COVID-19.

The Sport Psychologist, 35(1), 43–54. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2020-0106

Whiteman-Sandland, J., Hawkins, J., & Clayton, D. (2018). The role of social capital and community belongingness for exercise adherence: An exploratory study of the

CrossFit gym model. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(12), 1545–1556. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105316664132

Woolf, J., & Lawrence, H. (2017). Social identity and athlete identity among CrossFit members: an exploratory study on the CrossFit Open. Managing Sport and Leisure, 22(3),166–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2017.1415770

Spaaij, R., & Schaillée, H. (2021). Inside the black box: A micro-sociological analysis of sport for development. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(2), 151–169. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220902671

Sparkes, A. C., & Smith, B. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport exercise and health: From process to product. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203852187

CrossFit-udøvere, der træner i et center

Downloads

Publiceret

2022-01-07

Citation/Eksport

Lenneis, V., Hansen, J. K., Serritzlew, J. S., Olesen, J. T., & Thing, I. F. (2022). COVID-19 nedlukningens betydning i et CrossFit fællesskab. Forum for Idræt, 37(1), 104–131. Hentet fra https://tidsskrift.dk/forumforidraet/article/view/130156

Nummer

Sektion

Forum for Idræt - Generelt