Effects of Perceived Discrimination on the School Satisfaction of Brazilian High School Graduates

  • Rubia R. Valente The University of Texas at Dallas
  • Brian J.L. Berry The University of Texas at Dallas
Keywords: School Satisfaction, Discrimination, ENEM, Brazil

Abstract

This paper analyzes the consequences of peer victimization for the satisfaction with schooling (“happiness”) of college-bound high school graduates in Brazil.  Several types of victimization are explored including discrimination due to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and disability. We compare the satisfaction with their schooling of students planning to head to college straight from high school and older students applying for college later in life (“nontraditional students”). We conclude that students who perceived that they had been discriminated against were more dissatisfied with their school experience than those who did not, ceteris paribus, and we relate level of dissatisfaction to type of discrimination. The older student evidence reveals that this dissatisfaction wanes with time and age, however. Our conclusions are based upon ordered logistic analyses of data for 2.4 million current high school seniors and 78.7 thousand older students drawn from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio questionnaire (ENEM).

Author Biographies

Rubia R. Valente, The University of Texas at Dallas

School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences
Research Associate

 

Brian J.L. Berry, The University of Texas at Dallas

School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences

Lloyd Viel Berkner Regental Professor

References

Akkari, A. J. (2001). Desigualdades educativas estruturais no brasil: entre estado, privatização e descentralização. Educação e sociedade, 22(74):163–189. Ash, C. and Huebner, E. S. (1998). Life satisfaction reports of gifted middle-school children. School Psychology Quarterly, 13(4):310. Ateca-Amestoy, V., Aguilar, A. C., and Moro-Egido, A. I. (2014). Social interactions and life satisfaction: Evidence from Latin America. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3):527–554. Aviles Martinez, J. M. and Monjas Casares, I. (2005). Study of the impact of bullying within the obligatory secondary education, using the questionnaire cimei (aviles, 1999)-questionnaire of bullying. Anales de Psicología, 21(1):27–41. Baker, J. A. (1998). The social context of school satisfaction among urban, low-income, African-American students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13(1):25–44. Baldry, A. C. and Farrington, D. P. (2005). Protective factors as moderators of risk factors in adolescence bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 8(3):263–284. Bhattacharjee, A. and Mogilner, C. (2014). Happiness from ordinary and extraordinary experiences. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(1):1–17. Berger, K. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental review, 27(1):90–126. Berthold, K. A. and Hoover, J. H. (2000). Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology International, 21(1):65–78. Bill, J. A. (2003). Statistics anxiety: The nontraditional student. Education, 124(1):157. Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L., and Koenig, B. (2009). LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of youth and adolescence, 38(7):989–1000. Borg, M. G. (1999). The extent and nature of bullying among primary and secondary schoolchildren. Educational research, 41(2):137–153. Broadbent, J., de Quadros-Wander, S., & McGillivray, J. A. (2014). Perceived Control’s Influence on Wellbeing in Residential Care Versus Community Dwelling Older Adults. Journal of happiness studies, 15(4), 845-855. Carstensen, L. L., Pasupathi, M., Mayr, U., and Nesselroade, J. R. (2000). Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span. Journal of personality and social psychology, 79(4):644. Castro, M. (1997). Ensino privado ou público: Eis a (falsa) questão. Ensaio, 5(17):423–452. CEATS (2010). Pesquisa: Bullying Escolar no Brasil. Centro de Empreenderismo Social e Administração emTerceiro Sector, Fundação Instituto de Administração - São Paulo. Center, C. R. (2013). Addressing discrimination to prevent bullying and cyberbullying. Accessed on March 20, 2015. Charles, S. T., Mather, M., and Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Aging and emotional memory: the forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132(2):310. Charles, S. T., Reynolds, C. A., and Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(1):136. Christie, H. (2009). Emotional journeys: young people and transitions to university. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(2):123–136. Chung, E., Turnbull, D., and Chur-Hansen, A. (2014). Who are non-traditional students? a systematic review of published definitions in research on mental health of tertiary students. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(22):1224–1238. Crosby, F. (1984). The denial of personal discrimination. American Behavioral Scientist, 27(3):371–386. Cury, C. R. J. (1985). Escola pública, escola particular e a democratização do ensino. Cortez Editora. Dawkins, J. L. (1996). Bullying, physical disability and the pediatric patient. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 38(7):603–612. de Almeida, S. B., Cardoso, L. R. D., and Costac, V. V. (2009). Bullying: Conhecimento e prática pedagógia no ambiente escolar. Psicol. Argum, 27(58):201–206. de Oliveira, A. S. and da Silva Antonio, P. (2006). Sentimentos do adolescente relacionados ao fenômeno bullying: possibilidades para a assistência de enfermagem nesse contexto. Revista eletrônica de enfermagem, 8(1). DeSouza, E. R. et al. (2005). Bullying and sexual harassment among Brazilian high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(9):1018–1038. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American psychologist, 55(1):34–43. Diener, E. and Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological science, 7(3):181– 185. Diener, E. and Eunkook Suh, M. (1997). Subjective well-being and age: An international analysis. Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics, 17:304–324. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., and White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(1):94–122. Epstein, J. L. (1981). Patterns of classroom participation, student attitudes, and achievements. In The quality of school life, pages 81–115. Lexington Lexington, MA. Epstein, J. L. and McPartland, J. M. (1976). The concept and measurement of the quality of school life. American Educational Research Journal, 13(1):15–30. Fernandes, M., Ross, M., Wiegand, M., and Schryer, E. (2008). Are the memories of older adults positively biased? Psychology and aging, 23(2):297. Fried, S. and Fried, P. (1996). Bullies and Victims: Helping your child through the schoolyard battlefield. New York: M. Evans. Gilman, R. and Huebner, S. (2003). A review of life satisfaction research with children and adolescents. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2):192–205. Glover, D., Gough, G., Johnson, M., and Cartwright, N. (2000). Bullying in 25 secondary schools: Incidence, impact and intervention. Educational research, 42(2):141–156. Graham, C. and Felton, A. (2006). Inequality and happiness: insights from Latin America. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 4(1):107–122. Graham, C. and Pettinato, S. (2001). Happiness, markets, and democracy: Latin America in comparative perspective. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2(3):237–268. Grossi, P. K. and Santos, A. M. d. (2009). Desvendando o fenômeno bullying nas escolas públicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Revista Portuguesa de Educação, 22(2):249–267. Guimarães, J. and Sampaio, B. (2007). The influence of family background and individual characteristics on entrance tests scores of Brazilian university students. Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia-ANPEC-Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia, Recife. Hamiwka, L. D., Cara, G. Y., Hamiwka, L. A., Sherman, E. M., Anderson, B., and Wirrell, E. (2009). Are children with epilepsy at greater risk for bullying than their peers? Epilepsy & Behavior, 15(4):500–505. Hudson, R., Towey, J., and Shinar, O. (2008). Depression and racial/ethnic variations within a diverse nontraditional college sample. College Student Journal, 42(1):103. Huebner, E., Gilman, R., Reschly, A., and Hall, R. (2009). Positive schools. In Oxford handbook of Positive Psychology, pages 561–569. Oxford University Press New York, NY. Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological assessment, 6(2):149–158. Huebner, E. S., Ash, C., and Laughlin, J. E. (2001). Life experiences, locus of control, and school satisfaction in adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 55(2):167–183. Huebner, E. S. and McCullough, G. (2000). Correlates of school satisfaction among adolescents. The Journal of Educational Research, 93(5):331–335. Hughes, R. (1983). The non-traditional student in higher education: A synthesis of the literature. NASPA Journal, 20(3):51–64. INEP (2012). Microdados INEP. Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa, Ministry of Education. Johnson, M. L. and Nussbaum, E. M. (2012). Achievement goals and coping strategies: Identifying the traditional/nontraditional students who use them. Journal of College Student Development, 53(1):41–54. Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2004). The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 15(3), 208-214. Kessler, R., Mickelson, K., and Williams, D. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(3):208–230. Kim, K. A., Sax, L. J., Lee, J. J., and Hagedorn, L. S. (2010). Redefining nontraditional students: Exploring the self-perceptions of community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34(5):402–422. Kochenderfer, R. and Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer victimization: Cause and consequence of school maladjustment? Child Development, 67:1305–1317. Kosciw, J. G., a. D. E. (2006). The 2005 national school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network). Kosciw, J. G. (2004). The 2003 national school climate survey. The school-related experiences of our nation’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth. GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network). Kwon, Y., Scheibe, S., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Tsai, J. L., & Carstensen, L. L. (2009). Replicating the positivity effect in picture memory in Koreans: evidence for cross-cultural generalizability. Psychology and aging, 24(3), 748. Lacey, H. P., Smith, D. M., and Ubel, P. A. (2006). Hope i die before i get old: Mispredicting happiness across the adult lifespan. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2):167–182. Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., and Coleman, C. C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child development, 67(3):1103–1118. Leão, C. and Carvalho, J. (2011). O bullying no contexto escolar. EFDEPortes, 16(163). Leary, M. R. and Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Advances in experimental Social Psychology, 32:1–62. Levine, L. J. and Bluck, S. (1997). Experienced and remembered emotional intensity in older adults. Psychology and aging, 12(3):514. Little, L. (2002). Middle-class mothers’ perceptions of peer and sibling victimization among children with Asperger’s syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders. Issues in comprehensive pediatric nursing, 25(1):43–57. Lodge, J. and Frydenberg, E. (2005). The role of peer bystanders in school bullying: Positive steps toward promoting peaceful schools. Theory into Practice, 44(4):329–336. Lora, E. (2008). Beyond Facts: Understanding Quality of Life. Harvard Univ David Rockefeller. Loury, G. (2002). The anatomy of racial inequality. Harvard University Press. Marriel, L. C., Assis, S. G., Avanci, J. Q., and Oliveira, R. V. (2006). Violência escolar e auto-estima de adolescentes. Cadernos de pesquisa, 36(127):35–50. Mather, M., Knight, M., & McCaffrey, M. (2005). The allure of the alignable: younger and older adults' false memories of choice features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(1), 38. Mello, R. (2004). Teaching at the border of despair and hope: supporting the education of non-traditional working class student teachers. Westminster studies in education, 27(2):263–285. Mikels, J. A., Larkin, G. R., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Carstensen, L. L. (2005). Divergent trajectories in the aging mind: changes in working memory for affective versus visual information with age. Psychology and aging, 20(4), 542. Mishna, F. (2003). Learning disabilities and bullying double jeopardy. Journal of learning disabilities, 36(4):336–347. Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55(1):56–67. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among us youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Jama, 285(16):2094–2100. Natvig, G. K., Albrektsen, G., and Qvarnstrøm, U. (2003). Associations between psychosocial factors and happiness among school adolescents. International journal of nursing practice, 9(3):166–175. Newman, M. L., Holden, G. W., and Delville, Y. (2005). Isolation and the stress of being bullied. Journal of adolescence, 28(3):343–357. Nishina, A. and Juvonen, J. (2005). Daily reports of witnessing and experiencing peer harassment in middle school. Child development, 76(2):435–450. Norris, D. R. (2011). Interactions that trigger self-labeling: The case of older undergraduates. Symbolic Interaction, 34(2):173–197. O’Connell, P., Pepler, D., and Craig, W. (1999). Peer involvement in bullying: Insights and challenges for intervention. Journal of adolescence, 22(4):437–452. Ogbu, J. (1991). Low school performance as an adaptation: The case of blacks in Stockton, California. In Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities, pages 249–285. Garland New York. Oh, I. and Hazler, R. J. (2009). Contributions of personal and situational factors to bystanders’ reactions to school bullying. School Psychology International, 30(3):291–310. Okun, M. A., Braver, M. W., and Weir, R. M. (1990). Grade level differences in school satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 22(4):419–427. Olweus, D. (1992). Bullying among schoolchildren: Intervention and prevention. In Aggression and Violence throughout the Life Span by R.D. Meters, R.J. McMahon and V.L. Quinsey, pages 100–125. London: Sage. Olweus, D. (1994). Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(7):1171–1190. Pager, D. and Shepherd, H. (2008). The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annual review of sociology, 34:181–209. Palácios, M. and Rego, S. (2006). Bullying: mais uma epidemia invisível. Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica, 30(1):3–5. Pellegrini, A. D. and Long, J. D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(2):259–280. Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., and Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5):583–630. Reis, E. and Blofield, M. (2011). In Elite perceptions of poverty and inequality, pages 26–51. Pennsylvania State University Press State College, PA. Rivers, I. (2001). The bullying of sexual minorities at school: Its nature and long-term correlates. Educational and Child Psychology, 18(1):32–46. Rivers, I. (2004). Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 25(4):169. Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., and Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(4):211. Rojas, M. (2006). Life satisfaction and satisfaction in domains of life: is it a simple relationship? Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(4):467–497. Rosenbloom, S. R. and Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth & Society, 35(4):420–451. Ruggiero, K. and Major, B. (1998). Group status and attributions to discrimination: Are low-or high-status group members more likely to blame their failure on discrimination? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(8):821–837. Ruggiero, K. and Taylor, D. (1997). Why minority group members perceive or do not perceive the discrimination that confronts them: The role of self-esteem and perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(2):373–389. Sampaio, B. and Guimarães, J. (2009). Diferenças de eficiência entre ensino público e privado no Brasil. Economia Aplicada, 13(1):45–68. Saviani, D. (2008). Pedagogia histórico-crítica primeiras aproximações, volume 40. Autores associados. Schlagman, S., Schulz, J., & Kvavilashvili, L. (2006). A content analysis of involuntary autobiographical memories: Examining the positivity effect in old age. Memory, 14(2), 161-175. Scott, L. J. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables., volume 7. Sage Publications. Shallcross, A. J., Ford, B. Q., Floerke, V. A., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). Getting better with age: The relationship between age, acceptance, and negative affect. Journal of personality and social psychology, 104(4), 734. Smith, P. K. and Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in schools: Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive behavior, 26(1):1–9. Smokowski, P. R. and Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children & Schools, 27(2):101–110. Sørensen, A. B. and Morgan, S. L. (2000). School effects. In Handbook of the Sociology of Education, pages 137–160. Springer. Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychology, 52:613–29. Suldo, S. M., Riley, K. N., and Shaffer, E. J. (2006). Academic correlates of children and adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 27(5):567–582. Telles, E. E. (2014). Race in another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton University Press. Trach, J., Hymel, S., Waterhouse, T., and Neale, K. (2010). Bystander responses to school bullying: A cross-sectional investigation of grade and sex differences. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25(1):114–130. Twyman, K. A., Saylor, C. F., Saia, D., Macias, M. M., Taylor, L. A., and Spratt, E. (2010). Bullying and ostracism experiences in children with special health care needs. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(1):1–8. Verkuyten, M. and Thijs, J. (2001). Peer victimization and self-esteem of ethnic minority group children. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 11(3):227–234. Verkuyten, M. and Thijs, J. (2002). School satisfaction of elementary school children: The role of performance, peer relations, ethnicity and gender. Social Indicators Research, 59(2):203–228. Verkuyten, M. and Thijs, J. (2006). Ethnic discrimination and global self-worth in early adolescents: The mediating role of ethnic self-esteem. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(2):107–116. Yude, C., Goodman, R., and McConachie, H. (1998). Peer problems of children with hemiplegia in mainstream primary schools. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(04):533–541.

Published
2017-01-14
How to Cite
Valente, R., & Berry, B. (2017). Effects of Perceived Discrimination on the School Satisfaction of Brazilian High School Graduates. Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies, 5(1), 405-440. https://doi.org/10.25160/v5.i1/ga.3
Section
General Articles