Gender Bias in Recruiting

Developing a Social Practice Perspective

Forfattere

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7146/kkf.v31i3.128398

Nøgleord:

English, implicit bias, gender, recruitment, social practice, critical social psychology

Resumé

Unconscious bias training has become a popular intervention for eliminating discrimination in the workplace. Particularly recruitment processes are said to become fairer and more objective if gender biases are eliminated through training of personnel. However, the concept of gender bias, and particularly the idea that it can be trained away, has also been critiqued as too limited in its focus on individual mental processes, thereby neglecting effects of context, interaction and power. Taking this critique as our starting point, we argue that gender bias needs to be theorised in relation to a specific interaction and normative context. Building on cognitive social psychology, critical social psychology and on gender as a social practice we show that gender bias is not only an individual, but a fundamentally social activity that is embedded within organisational norms and power relations and reproduced in interaction. By theorising gender bias as a social practice, we expand the concept of gender
bias beyond individual cognition. This perspective not only opens up the scope of explanation but is also a vital concept for exploring and combatting bias in recruiting.

Referencer

Acker, Joan. 1990. Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations. Gender and Society. 4(2), 139–158.

Apfelbaum, E. P., S. R. Sommers, and M. L. Norton. 2008. Seeing Race and Seeming Racist? Evaluating Strategic Colorblindness in Social Interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 95(4), 918–32.

Applebaum, B. 2019. Remediating Campus Climate: Implicit Bias Training Is Not Enough. Studies in Philosophy and Education. 38(2), 129–41.

Ashcraft, K. L. 2013. The Glass Slipper: ‘Incorporating’ Occupational Identity in Management Studies. Academy of Management Review. 38(1), 6–31.

Atewologun, D., Tresh, F., and Cornish, T. 2018. Unconscious Bias Training: An Assessment of the Evidence for Effectiveness (Equality and Human Rights Commission Research report 113). https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/research-report-113-unconcious-bais-training-an-assessment-of-the-evidence-for-effectiveness-pdf.pdf

Augoustinos, M., and D. Every. 2007. The Language of ‚Race‘ and Prejudice: A Discourse of Denial, Reason, and Liberal-Practical Politics. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 26(2), 123–41.

Augoustinos, M. 2016. Re-theorizing Prejudice in Social Psychology: From Cognition to Discourse. In: Tileagă, C. and Stokoe, E. (eds.), Discursive psychology: Classic and contemporary issues. New York: Routledge, 243–56.

Banaji, M.R., and Greenwald, A.G. 1995. Implicit Gender Stereotyping in Judgments of Fame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 68(2), 181–98. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.2.181.

Bezrukova, K., Spell, C.S., Perry, J.L., and Jehn, K.A. 2016. A Meta-Analytical Integration of over 40 Years of Research on Diversity Training Evaluation. Psychological Bulletin. 142(11), 1227–74. doi: 10.1037/bul0000067.

Billig, M. 1985. Prejudice, Categorization and Particularization - from a Perceptual to a Rhetorical Approach. European Journal of Social Psychology. 15(1), 79–103. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420150107.

Billig, M. 1996. Arguing and Thinking. A Rhetorical Approach to Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M. 1988. The Notion of ‘Prejudice’: Some Rhetorical and Ideological Aspects. Text and Talk. 8(1–2), 91–110. doi: 10.1515/text.1.1988.8.1-2.91.

Byrne, J., Radu-Lefebvre, M., Fattoum, S., & Balachandra, L. 2021. Gender Gymnastics in CEO Succession: Masculinities, Femininities and Legitimacy. Organization Studies. 42(1), 129–159. doi.org/10.1177/0170840619879184

van den Brink, M., Holgersson, C., Linghag, S., and Deé, S. 2016. Inflating and Down Playing Strengths and Weaknesses—Practicing Gender in the Evaluation of Potential Managers and Partners. Scandinavian Journal of Management. 32(1), 20–32. doi: 10.1016/j.scaman.2015.11.001.

Calder-Dawe, O. 2015. The Choreography of Everyday Sexism: Reworking Sexism in Interaction. New Formations. 86(86), 89–105.

Carnes, M., Devine, P.G., Manwell, L.B., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., Ford, C.E., Forscher, P., Isaac, C., Kaatz, A., Magua, W., Palta, M. and Sheridan, J. 2015. The Effect of an Intervention to Break the Gender Bias Habit for Faculty at One Institution: A Cluster Randomized, Controlled Trial. Academic Medicine. 90(2), 221–30. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000552.

Condor, S., and Figgou, L. 2012. Rethink the Prejudice Problematic: A Collaborative Cognition Approach. In: Dixon, J. and Levine, M. (eds.). Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 200-220.

Davies, B., & Harré, R. 1990. Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves. Journal for the theory of social behaviour. 20(1), 43–63.

Castillo, de. 2018. Unconscious Racial Prejudice as Psychological Resistance: A Limitation of the Implicit Bias Model. Critical Philosophy of Race, 6(2), 262. https://doi.org/10.5325/critphilrace.6.2.0262

Derks, B., Van Laar, C., and Ellemers, N. 2016. The Queen Bee Phenomenon: Why Women Leaders Distance Themselves from Junior Women“. The Leadership Quarterly 27(3), 456–69. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.12.007.

Deutsch, F. 2007. Undoing Gender. Gender & Society, 21(1), 106–127. doi.org/10.1177/0891243206293577

Duguid, M. M., and Thomas-Hunt, M.C. 2015. Condoning Stereotyping? How Awareness of Stereotyping Prevalence Impacts Expression of Stereotypes. Journal of Applied Psychology. 100(2), 343–59. doi: 10.1037/a0037908.

Durrheim, K. 2012. Implicit prejudice in mind and interaction. In: Dixon, J. and Levine, M. (eds.). Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 179-99.

Durrheim, K., Hook, D. and Riggs, D. 2009. Race and Racism. In: Fox, D., Prilleltensky, I., and Austin, S. (eds.). Critical Psychology: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Eagly, A.H., and Karau, S.J. 2002. Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice toward Female Leaders. Psychological Review. 109(3), 573–98. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.109.3.573.

Edwards, D. 1991. Categories are for Talking: On the Cognitive and Discursive Bases of Categorization. Theory and Psychology. 1(4), 515–42. doi: 10.1177/0959354391014007.

Fazio, R. H., and Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit Measures in Social Cognition Research: Their Meaning and Use. Annual Review of Psychology. 54(1), 297–327. doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145225

Fiske, S. and Taylor, S. 2008. Social Cognition, from Brains to Culture. Harvard: McGraw-Hill.

Forscher, P. S., Lai, C. K., Axt, J. R., Ebersole, C. R., Herman, M., Devine, P. G., & Nosek, B. A. 2019. A Meta-Analysis of Procedures to Change Implicit Measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 117(3), 522–559. doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000160

Gawronski, B., Hofmann, W., and Wilbur, C. J. 2006. Are ‘Implicit’ Attitudes Unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition. 15(3), 485–499. doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2005.11.007

Gherardi, S. 1994. The Gender we Think, the Gender we Do in our Everyday Organizational Lives. Human Relations. 47(6), 591–610.

Girod, S., Fassiotto, M., Grewal, D., Ku, M.C., Sriram, N., Nosek, B.A., and Valantine, H. 2016. Reducing Implicit Gender Leadership Bias in Academic Medicine with an Educational Intervention. Academic Medicine. 91(8), 1143–50. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001099.

Greenwald, A. G., and Banaji, M. R. 1995. Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes“. Psychological Review. 102(1), 4–27. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4.

Greenwald, A. G., and Lai, C. K. 2020. Implicit Social Cognition. Annual Review of Psychology. 71, 419–445. doi.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-psych-010419-050837

Hahn, A., & Gawronski, B. 2019. Facing one’s Implicit Biases: From Awareness to Acknowledgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 116(5), 769–794. doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000155

Heilman, M.E. 2012. Gender Stereotypes and Workplace Bias. Research in Organizational Behavior. 32. 113–35. doi: 10.1016/j.riob.2012.11.003.

Heilman, M.E., and Stopeck, M.H.. 1985. Attractiveness and Corporate Success: Different Causal Attributions for Males and Females. Journal of Applied Psychology. 70(2), 379–88.

Holgersson, C. 2013. Recruiting Managing Directors: Doing Homosociality. Gender, Work and Organization. 20(4), 454–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0432.2012.00595.x.

Jackson, S. M., Hillard, A.L., and Schneider, T.R. 2014. Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM. Social Psychology of Education. 17(3), 419–38. doi: 10.1007/s11218-014-9259-5.

Kahn, K. B., Barreto, M., Kaiser, C. R., and Rego, M. S. 2016. When do High and Low Status Group Members Support Confrontation? The Role of Perceived Pervasiveness of Prejudice. British Journal of Social Psychology. 55(1), 27–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12117

Kalev, A., Dobbin, F., and Kelly, E. 2006. Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies. American Sociological Review. 71(4), 589–617. doi: 10.1177/000312240607100404.

Koch, A.J., D’Mello, S.D. and Sackett, P.R. 2015. A Meta-Analysis of Gender Stereotypes and Bias in Experimental Simulations of Employment Decision Making. Journal of Applied Psychology. 100(1), 128–61. doi: 10.1037/a0036734.

Koenig, A.M., Eagly, A.H., Mitchell, A., and Ristikari, T. 2011. Are Leader Stereotypes Masculine? A Meta-Analysis of Three Research Paradigms. Psychological Bulletin. 137(4), 616–42.

Lindsey, A., King, E., Hebl, M., and Levine, N. 2015. The Impact of Method, Motivation, and Empathy on Diversity Training Effectiveness. Journal of Business and Psychology. 30(3), 605–617. doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9384-3

Maes, K., Gvozdanovic, J., Buitendijk, S., Hallberg, I.R. and Mantillieri, B. 2012. Women, Research and Universities: Excellence without Gender Bias. League of European Research Universities (LERU). https://www.leru.org/publications/women-research-and-universities-excellence-without-gender-bias

Majumdar, B., Browne, G., Roberts, J., and Carpio, B. 2004. Effects of Cultural Sensitivity Training on Health Care Provider Attitudes and Patient Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 36(2), 161–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04029.x.

Martin, P. Y. 2006. Practising Gender at Work: Further Thoughts on Reflexivity. Gender, Work and Organization. 13(3), 254–76. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00307.x.

Messner, M.A. 2011. The Privilege of Teaching about Privilege. Sociological Perspectives. 54(1), 3-13.

Moss-Racusin, C.A., van der Toorn, J., Dovidio, J.F., Brescoll, V.L., Graham, M.J., and Handelsman, J. 2016. A ‘Scientific Diversity’ Intervention to Reduce Gender Bias in a Sample of Life Scientists. CBE—Life Sciences Education. 15(3). doi: 10.1187/cbe.15-09-0187.

Murgia, A., and Poggio, B. 2009. Challenging Hegemonic Masculinities: Men’s Stories on Gender Culture in Organizations. Organization. 16(3), 407–423. doi.org/10.1177/1350508409102303

Nentwich, J. C., Ozbilgin, M. F., & Tatli, A. 2015. Change Agency as Performance and Embeddedness: Exploring the Possibilities and Limits of Butler and Bourdieu. Culture and Organization. 21(3), 235–250. doi.org/10.1080/14759551.2013.851080

Nentwich, J. C., and Kelan, E. K. 2014. Towards a Topology of ‘Doing Gender’: An Analysis of Empirical Research and its Challenges. Gender, Work & Organization. 21(2), 121–134. doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12025

Nentwich, J. C., & Ostendorp, A. 2016. Maneuvering Acts: Inclusion and Exclusion in a Women’s Sports Club. In: Steyaert, C., Nentwich, J.C., Hoyer, P. (eds). A Guide to Discursive Organizational Psychology. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 98–122.

Nishida, H. 1999. A Cognitive Approach to Intercultural Communication based on Schema Theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 23(5), 753–777. doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00019-X

Noon, Mike. 2018. Pointless Diversity Training: Unconscious Bias, New Racism and Agency. Work, Employment and Society. 32(1), 198–209. doi: 10.1177/0950017017719841

OECD. 2014. Women, Government and Policy Making in OECD Countries: Fostering Diversity for Inclusive Growth. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Paluck, E.L., and Green, D.P. 2009. Prejudice Reduction: What Works? A Review and Assessment of Research and Practice. Annual Review of Psychology. 60(1), 339–67. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163607.

Potter, J., and Wetherell, M. 1987. Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour. London: Sage.

Price, E., Beach, M.C., Gary, T.L., Robinson, K.A., Gozu, A., Palacio, A., Smarth, C, Jenckes, M., Feuerstein, C., Bass, E.B., Powe, N.R., and Cooper, L.A.. 2005. A Systematic Review of the Methodological Rigor of Studies Evaluating Cultural Competence Training of Health Professionals. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 80(6), 578–86. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200506000-00013.

Riach, K., Rumens, N., and Tyler, M. (2016). Towards a Butlerian Methodology: Undoing Organizational Performativity through Anti-Narrative Research. Human Relations, 69(11), 2069–2089. doi.org/10.1177/0018726716632050

Ridgeway, C. L., and Correll, S. J. 2004. Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Gender Beliefs and Social Relations. Gender & Society. 18(4), 510–531. doi.org/10.1177/0891243204265269

Rumelhart, D., and Norman, D. 1978. Accretion, Tuning and Restructuring: Three Modes of Learning. In: Cotton, J.W., and Klatzky, R. (eds.). Semantic Factors in Cognition. Erlbaum.

Schein, V.E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., and Liu, J. 1996. Think Manager—Think Male: A Global Phenomenon? Journal of Organizational Behavior. 17(1), 33–41. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199601)17:1<33::AID-JOB778>3.0.CO;2-F

Shotter, John. 1993. Conversational Realities: Constructing Life Through Language. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Souto-Manning, M. 2011. Playing with Power and Privilege: Theatre Games in Teacher Education. Teaching and Teacher Education. 27, 997-1007.

Spiro, R. J., Montague, W. E., and Anderson, R. C. (eds.). (1977). Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge. London: Routledge.

Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Oxford: Academic Press.

Tate, S.A., and Page, D. 2018. Whiteliness and Institutional Racism: Hiding Behind (Un)conscious Bias“. Ethics and Education. 13(1), 141–55. doi: 10.1080/17449642.2018.1428718.

Tienari, J., Meriläinen, S., Holgersson, C., and Bendl, R. 2013. And then there are None: On the Exclusion of Women in Processes of Executive Search. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 28(1), 43–62. doi.org/10.1108/17542411311301565

Trix, F., and Psenka, C. 2003. Exploring the Color of Glass: Letters of Recommendation for Female and Male Medical Faculty. Discourse & Society. 14(2), 191–220. doi.org/10.1177/0957926503014002277

Valian, V. 1998. Why so Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wetherell, M. 2008. Subjectivity or Psycho-Discursive Practices? Investigating Complex Intersectional Identities. Subjectivity. 22(1), 73–81. doi: 10.1057/sub.2008.7.

Williamson, S., and Foley, M. 2018. Unconscious Bias Training: The ‘Silver Bullet’ for Gender Equity?. Australian Journal of Public Administration. 77(3), 355–59. doi: 10.1111/1467-8500.12313.

Witzig, V., and Seyfarth C.F. 2020. Excellence, Diversity or Efficiency? ‘Implicit bias’ in Appointments Committees as Conflicting Goals in Social Practices. Zeitschrift für Hochschulentwicklung. 15(03), 391-411. doi: 10.3217/ZFHE-15-03/24.

Downloads

Publiceret

2021-12-13

Citation/Eksport

Nentwich, J., Baumgärtner, M. K., Chowdhury, N., & Witzig, V. (2021). Gender Bias in Recruiting: Developing a Social Practice Perspective. Kvinder, Køn &Amp; Forskning, 32(3), 11–24. https://doi.org/10.7146/kkf.v31i3.128398