Migrants’ Work Environment in the Danish Construction Sector: a Scoping Study





Health, Working Environment & Wellbeing, Employment, Wages, Unemployment & Rehabilitation, Gender, Ethnicity, Age and Diversity, Identity, Meaning & Culture


This study of existing research maps out what is known about the work environment of migrant workers employed in the construction sector in Denmark. Through the systematic approach offered by a scoping study and using two conceptual models identifying determinants of worker health and safety as analytical frameworks, we identify an overall paucity of research concerned specifically with the health and safety of migrants. A broader literature shows that migrants are vulnerable workers who are channeled into 3D jobs and face job insecurity. Migrants also face poor treatment and segregation. We conclude by identifying 10 gaps in the current literature, including a lack of valid evidence concerning accidents and risks.

Author Biographies

Charlotte Overgaard, Aalborg University

Postdoc, Centre for Labour Market Research. E-mail: chov@dps.aau.dk

Magnus Jespersen, Aalborg University

Research Assistant, Centre for Labour Market Research

Laust Høgedahl, Aalborg University

Associate Professor, Centre for Labour Market Research

Trine Lund Thomsen, Aalborg University

Associate Professor, Department of Culture and Learning


Aasland, A. and Tyldum, G. (2016) Opportunities and risks among the migrant workers in the hotel industry in Oslo. Nordic Journal of Migration Research 6(2): 92–101. DOI: 10.1515/njmr-2016-0016.

Ahonen, E.Q., Benavides, F.G., and Benach, J. (2007) Immigrant populations, work and health: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 33(2): 96–104. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.1112.

Akhavan, S., Bildt, C.O., Franzén, E.C., et al. (2004) Health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants in Sweden from a gender perspective. Journal of Immigrant Health 6(3): 103–18. DOI: 10.1023/b:joih.0000030226.59785.38.

Alberti, G., Holgate, J., and Tapia, M. (2013) Organising migrants as workers or as migrant workers? Intersectionality, trade unions and precarious work. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 24(22): 4132–4148. DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2013.845429.

Andersen, J., Elm Larsen, J., and Hornemann Møller, I. (2009) The exclusion and marginalisation of immigrants in the Danish welfare society. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 29(5/6): 274–286. DOI: 10.1108/01443330910965804.

Andersen, S., and Arnholtz, J. (2008) Strong trade unions meet EEC workers. In: Challenges in European Employment Relations. Wolters Kluwer. Available at: https://faos.ku.dk/english/publications/2008/strong_trade_unions_meet_eec_workers/.

Andersen, S., and Felbo-Kolding, J. (2013) Danske Virksomheders Brug af Østeuropæisk Arbejdskraft [Danish enterprises’ use of East European workers]. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University. Available at: http://faos.ku.dk/pdf/boger-og-rapporter/2013/Danske_virksomheders_brug_af__steurop_isk_arbejdskraft.pdf.

Andersen, S.K., and Felbo-Kolding, J. (2014) Midlertidige øst-migranter udfordrer den danske model [Temporary east-migrants challenge the Danish model]. Samfundsøkonomen. Available at: https://www.djoef-forlag.dk/openaccess/samf/samfdocs/2014/2014_4/samf_2014_4_4.pdf.

Andersen, S.K., and Pedersen, K. (2010) Social dumping: Overenskomster og lovregulering - baggrund og perspektiver [Social dumping: Enterprise agreements and lawregulations - background and perspectives]. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. Available at: https://faos.ku.dk/pdf/forskningsnotater/forskningsnotater_2010/Fnotat_110.pdf/.

Andersen, S.K., Dølvik, J.E., and Ibsen, C.L. (2014) Nordic labour market models in open markets. Brussels: European Trade Union Institute. Available at: https://decentwork.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/ENG-Andersen-D%C3%B8lvik-Ibsen-Nordic-labour-market-models-in-open-markets.pdf.

Andrijasevic, R., and Sacchetto, D. (2016) From labour migration to labour mobility? The return of the multinational worker in Europe. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research 22(2): 219–231. DOI: 10.1177/1024258916635975.

Arbeidstilsynet (2012) Arbeidsskader blant utenlandske arbeidstakere [Work accidents among foreign workers]. Kompass Tema. Oslo: Arbeidstilsynet. Available at: https://www.arbeidstilsynet.no/globalassets/om-oss/forskning-og-rapporter/kompass-tema-rapporter/2012/kompass-tema-nr-2-2012-arbeidsskader-blant-utenlandske-arbeidstakere.pdf.

Arbejdstilsynet (2020a) Arbejdsulykker i byggeriet 2015-2019: Arbejdsskader – tal og fakta nr. 2/2020 [Work accidents in construction from 2015-2019: Work damages - numbers and facts number 2/2020]. Copenhagen: Arbejdstilsynet. Available at: https://at.dk/media/6533/arbejdsulykker-byggeriet-2015-2019.pdf.

Arbejdstilsynet (2020b) Tilskadekomne i bygge- og anlægsbrancherne: Arbejdsskader – tal og fakta nr. 2a/2020 [Injured in the building and construction sector: work injuries - numbers and facts number 2a/2020]. Copenhagen: Arbejdstilsynet. Available at: https://at.dk/media/6534/tilskadekomne-bygge-anlaegsbrancherne.pdf.

Arbejdstilsynet (n/d) Indsatsen mod social dumping. Available at: https://at.dk/tilsyn/tilsyn-med-udenlandske-virksomheder/indsatsen-mod-social-dumping/.

Arbejdstilsynet (n/d) RUT - Tiltaleindstillinger og bødeforlæg. Available at: https://at.dk/om-os/faelles-myndighedsindsats-mod-social-dumping/rut-tiltaleindstillinger-og-boedeforlaeg/.

Arbejdstilsynet (n/d) The control measures of the Danish Working Environment Authority. Available at: https://at.dk/en/inspection/inspection-of-enterprises/.

Arcury, T.A., Summers, P., Carrillo, L., et al. (2014) Occupational safety beliefs among Latino residential roofing workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57(6): 718–725. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.22248.

Arksey, H., and O’Malley, L. (2005) Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1): 19–32. DOI: 10.1080/1364557032000119616.

Arnholtz, J. (2021) Posted work, enforcement capacity and firm variation: Evidence from the Danish construction sector. Economic and Industrial Democracy 42(4): 1149–1164. DOI: 10.1177/0143831x19853022.

Arnholtz, J., and Andersen, S. (2016) Udenlandske Virksomheder Og Udstationerede Arbejdstagere i Bygge- Og Anlægsbranchen [Foreign Companies and Posted Workers in the Construction Sector]. København: FAOS, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet. Available at: https://faos.ku.dk/ansatte/?pure=da%2Fpublications%2Fudenlandske-virksomheder-og-udstationerede-arbejdstagere-i-bygge-og-anlaegsbranchen(8d243070-2231-4a89-a1dd-76335f24fcfa).html.

Arnholtz, J., and Hansen, N.W. (2009) Polonia i København: Et studie af polske arbejdsmigranters løn-, arbejds- og levevilkår i Storkøbenhavn [’Polonia’ in Cophenhagen: A study of Polish work mirgrants’ salaries, work and living conditions in Copenhagen]. Copenhagen: FAOS. Forskningscenter for Arbejdsmarkeds- og Organisationsstudier. Available at: https://fho.dk/wp-content/uploads/lo/2017/05/2111-lodokumentation-2009-1-polonia.pdf.

Arnholtz, J., and Hansen, N.W. (2013) Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants: The case of Polish migrant labour in the Danish labour market. Economic and Industrial Democracy 34(3): 401–422. DOI: 10.1177/0143831X12450055.

Arnholtz, J., and Refslund, B. (2019) Active enactment and virtuous circles of employment relations: How Danish unions organised the transnationalised Copenhagen Metro construction project. Work, Employment and Society 33(4): 682–699. DOI: 10.1177/0950017019832514.

Askola, H., Forbes-Mewett, H., and Shmihelska, O. (2021) Migrant Precariousness in the Time of COVID-19: Migrant Workers, Risks and Rights. Clayton, Victoria: Castan Centre for Human Rights Law. Available at: https://www.monash.edu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/2489233/Migration-and-COVID-19-final-report.pdf.

Baadsgaard, K., and Jørgensen, H. (2018) Bekæmpelse af social dumping er også en kommunal opgave [Fighting social dumping is also a job for local councils]. Tidsskrift for Arbejdsliv 20: 47–63. DOI: 10.7146/tfa.v20i1.108197.

Baarts, C. (2004) Viden & Kunnen: En Antropologisk Analyse Af Sikkerhed På En Byggeplads [Knowledge & Skill: An Anthropological Analysis of Safety on a Construction Site]. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/35700255_Viden_kunnen_en_antropologisk_analyse_af_sikkerhed_pa_en_byggeplads.

Baarts, C. (2009) Collective individualism: the informal and emergent dynamics of practising safety in a high‐risk work environment. Construction Management and Economics 27(10): 949–957. DOI: 10.1080/01446190903147501.

Benach, J., Muntaner, C., Delclos, C., et al. (2011) Migration and ‘low-skilled’ workers in destination countries. PLOS Medicine 8(6): e1001043. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001043.

Berntsen, L. (2016) Reworking labour practices: on the agency of unorganized mobile migrant construction workers. Work, Employment and Society 30(3): 472–488. DOI: 10.1177/0950017015617687.

Bhattacharya, S., and Tang, L. (2013) Fatigued for safety? Supply chain occupational health and safety initiatives in shipping. Economic and Industrial Democracy 34(3): 383–399. DOI: 10.1177/0143831X12439760.

Biering, K., Lander, F. and Rasmussen, K. (2017) Work injuries among migrant workers in Denmark. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 74(4): 235. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2016-103681.

Bust, P.D., Gibb, A.G.F., and Pink, S. (2008) Managing construction health and safety: Migrant workers and communicating safety messages. Safety Science 46(4): 585–602. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2007.06.026.

BygTek (2019) Antallet af udlændinge i byggeriet er vokset til 16.300. Available at: https://bygtek.dk/artikel/byggeri/antallet-af-udlndinge-i-byggeriet-er-vokset-til-16300.

Byrne, J., Clarke, L. and Van Der Meer, M. (2005) Gender and ethnic minority exclusion from skilled occupations in construction: a Western European comparison. Construction management and economics 23(10). Construction Management & Economics: 1025–1034. DOI: 10.1080/01446190500310759.

Carneiro, I.G., Ortega, A., Borg, V., et al. (2010) Health and sickness absence in Denmark: a study of elderly-care immigrant workers. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 12(1). 2008/11/07 ed.: 43–52. DOI: 10.1007/s10903-008-9206-7.

Caro, E., Berntsen, L., Lillie, N., et al. (2015) Posted migration and segregation in the European Construction Sector. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41(10): 1600–1620. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2015.1015406.

Casey, T., Riseborough, K., Krauss, A. (2015) Do you see what I see? Effects of national culture on employees’ safety-related perceptions and behavior. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2015: 173–184. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2015.03.010.

COWI (2012) Minimering af ulykkesrisici for migrantarbejdere beskæftiget i byggebranchen og primær landbrug [Minimising risks for migrant workers in the construction sector and agriculture]. Copenhagen: Arbejdsmiljøforskningsfonden. Available at: https://amff.dk/media/11545/minimering-af-ulykkesrisici.pdf.

COWI (2016) Indsats mod arbejdsulykker ved offentlige bygge- og anlægsprojekter, hvor der beskæftiges udenlandsk arbejdskraft [interventions into work injuries at large public construction projects]. Copenhagen: Arbejdsmiljøforskningsfonden. Available at: https://amff.dk/media/11504/indsats-mod-arbejdsulykker-slutrapport.pdf.

Doki, S., Sasahara, S., and Matsuzaki, I. (2018) Stress of working abroad: a systematic review. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 91(7): 767–784. DOI: 10.1007/s00420-018-1333-4.

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2007) Literature study on migrant workers. Brussels: EU-OSHA. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/literature-study-migrant-workers-health_en.

Facey, M.E. (2003) The health effects of taxi driving. Canadian Journal of Public Health 94(4): 254–257. DOI: 10.1007/BF03403545.

Fiałkowska, K. (2019) Remote fatherhood and visiting husbands: seasonal migration and men’s position within families. Comparative Migration Studies 7(1): 1–17. DOI: 10.1186/s40878-018-0106-2.

Fine, J., and Gordon, J. (2011) Strengthening labor standards enforcement through partnerships with workers’ organizations. Politics and Society 38(4). DOI: 10.1177/0032329210381240.

FOA (2009) Udfordringen: Dilemmaer og udfordringer i rekruttering af udenlandsk arbejdskraft. Copenhagen: FOA. Available at: https://applikationer.foa.dk/Publikationer/pjecer/Forbund/Udfordringen.pdf.

Greer, I., Ciupijus, Z., and Lillie, N. (2013) The European Migrant Workers Union and the barriers to transnational industrial citizenship. European Journal of Industrial Relations 19(1): 5–20. DOI: 10.1177/0959680112474748.

Grill, M., Grytnes, R., and Törner, M. (2015) Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry: professionals’ perceptions of safety culture differences. Safety Science Monitor 19.

Grill, M., Pousette, A., Nielsen, K., et al. (2017) Safety leadership at construction sites: the importance of rule-oriented and participative leadership. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 43(4): 375–384. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.3650.

Grillis, A.-N., Dyreborg, J. (2015) Social dumping — et særligt problem for byggebranchen? [Social dumping - a specific problem for the construction sector?]. Tidsskrift for Arbejdsliv 17(2): 10–30. DOI: 10.7146/tfa.v17i2.108990.

Grytnes, R., Grill, M., Pousette, A., et al. (2017) Apprentice or Student? The structures of construction industry vocational education and training in Denmark and Sweden and their possible consequences for safety learning. Vocations and learning 11(1): 65–87. DOI: 10.1007/s12186-017-9180-0.

Guldenmund, F., Cleal, B., and Mearns, K. (2013) An exploratory study of migrant workers and safety in three European countries. Safety Science 52: 92–99. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2012.05.004.

Hargreaves, S., Rustage, K., Nellums, L.B., et al. (2019) Occupational health outcomes among international migrant workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet global health 7(7): E872–E882. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30204-9.

Hogh, A., Carneiro, I., Giver, H., et al. (2011) Are immigrants in the nursing industry at increased risk of bullying at work? A one-year follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 52(1): 49–56.

Holmes, S.M. (2006) An ethnographic study of the social context of migrant health in the United States. PLOS Medicine 3(10): e448. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030448.

Hoppe, A. (2011) Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16(2): 187–201. DOI: 10.1037/a0021728.

Hvid, H., Buch, A. (2020) Migrantarbejderes arbejdsmiljø og metoder til overvågning og regulering heraf. Et litteraturstudium. København: Arbejdstilsynet. Available at: https://at.dk/media/6899/migrantarbejderes-arbejdsmiljoe.pdf.

Hviid, K., Flyvholm, M.A. (2010) Udenlandsk arbejdskraft i Norden: Sammenfatning af landerapporter fra forprojektet til Nordisk Ministerråds globaliseringsprojekt [Foreign workers in the Nordic Countries: Collation of all country reports for Nordic Council of Ministers’ globalisation project]. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd. Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A701662&dswid=7228.

Hviid, K., Smith, L.H., Frydendall, K.B., et al. (2013) Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10(1): 85–106. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10010085.

Isusi, I., Corral, A., Durán, J., et al. (2020) Workforce Diversity and Musculoskeletal Disorders: Review of Facts and Figures and Examples. Luxembourg: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Available at: https://oxfordresearch.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Workforce_diversity_and_MSDs.pdf.

Jensen, C. (2009) Has Globalisation Changed the Phillips Curve?, Industri-Level Evidence on the Effect of Unemployment Gap on Wages. Study Paper nr. 23. København: Rockwool Fondens Forskningsenhed. Available at: https://www.rockwoolfonden.dk/publikationer/has-globalization-changed-the-phillips-curve-industry-level-evidence-on-the-effect-of-the-unemployment-gap-on-wages/.

Jeschke, K.N., Waldorff, S.B., Dyreborg, J., et al. (2021) Complaining about occupational safety and health: a barrier for collaboration between managers and workers on construction sites. Construction Management and Economics 39(6): 459–474. DOI: 10.1080/01446193.2021.1924388.

Jørgensen, M.B., Rasmussen, C.D.N., Carneiro, I.G., et al. (2011) Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 84(6): 665–674. DOI: 10.1007/s00420-010-0607-2.

Juul, J.S. (2013) Stigning i Østeuropæisk Arbejdskraft i Danmark [Rise in Labour from Eastern Europe]. Copenhagen: Arbejderbevægelsens Erhvervsråd. Available at: https://www.ae.dk/analyse/2013-04-stigning-i-oesteuropaeisk-arbejdskraft-i-danmark.

Kofoed-Diedrichsen, M., and Weise, K. (2017) Nordiske tiltag mod social dumping: En gennemgang af fænomenet, dets udbredelse og indsatsen mod det [Nordic action against soical dumping]. Copenhagen: CEVEA. Available at: https://samak.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Nordiske-tiltag-mod-Social-Dumping-Cevea-januar-2017.pdf.

Kraft, K. (2019) Language policies and linguistic competence: new speakers in the Norwegian construction industry. Language Policy 18(4): 573–591. DOI: 10.1007/s10993-018-9502-6.

Kvorning, L.V., Hasle, P., and Christensen, U. (2015) Motivational factors influencing small construction and auto repair enterprises to participate in occupational health and safety programmes. Safety Science 71: 253–263. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2014.06.003.

Lander, F., Nielsen, K.J., Rasmussen, K., et al. (2014) Patterns of work injuries: cases admitted to emergency room treatment compared to cases reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 2003–2010. Occupational and environmental medicine 71(2): 97–103. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101559.

Lønsmann, D., and Kraft, K. (2018) Language policy and practice in multilingual production workplaces. Multilingua 37(4): 403–427. DOI: 10.1515/multi-2017-0088.

Lubbers, M., and Gijsberts, M.I.L. (2016) Comparing the labour market position of Poles and Bulgarians before and after migration to the Netherlands. Comparative Migration Studies 4(1): 1–18. DOI: 10.1186/s40878-016-0043-x.

Marvasti, A. (2010) Occupational safety and English language proficiency. Journal of Labor Research 31(4): 332–347. DOI: 10.1007/s12122-010-9096-z.

Mousaid, S., De Moortel, D., Malmusi D., et al. (2016) New perspectives on occupational health and safety in immigrant populations: studying the intersection between immigrant background and gender. Ethnicity & Health 21(3): 251–267. DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2015.1061103.

Moyce, S.C., and Schenker, M. (2018) Migrant workers and their occupational health and safety. Annual Review of Public Health 39. 2018/02/06 ed.: 351–365. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013714.

Mucci, N., Traversini, V., Giorgi, G., et al. (2019) Migrant workers and physical health: an umbrella review. Sustainability 11(1): 232. DOI: 10.3390/su11010232.

Nielsen, J. (2007) Struggles for health and safety in the Danish construction industry. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 13(1). 2007/04/13 ed.: 21–6. DOI: 10.1179/107735207800245018.

Nielsen, K., Törner, M., Dyreborg, J., et al. (2017) Arbejdsulykker i Danmark og Sverige. Identificering af virkemidler og strategier, der kan overføres fra Sverige til Danmark [Work accidents in Denmark and Sweden. Identification of interventions and strategies, which are transferable from Sweden to Denmark]. Herning: Dansk Ramazzini Center. Available at: https://nfa.dk/da/Forskning/Udgivelse?journalId=1c5280d5-fd85-45dd-9bfc-5f05acaa851d.

Nielsen, K.J. (2017) A comparison of inspection practices within the construction industry between the Danish and Swedish Work Environment Authorities. Construction Management and Economics 35(3): 154–169. DOI: 10.1080/01446193.2016.1231407.

Nielsen, N., and Sandberg, M. (2014) Between social dumping and social protection. The challenge of creating orderly working conditions among Polish circular migrants in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. Ethnologia Europaea 44: 23–37. DOI: 10.16995/ee.1119.

Nunes, I. (2012) The nexus between OSH and subcontracting. Work 41: 3062–3068. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0564-3062.

Olesen, K., Carneiro, I.G., Jørgensen, M.B., et al. (2012) Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 85(1): 89–95. DOI: 10.1007/s00420-011-0642-7.

Ortega, A., Gomes Carneiro, I., and Flyvholm, M.A. (2010) A descriptive study on immigrant workers in the elderly care sector. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 12(5): 699–706. DOI: 10.1007/s10903-009-9257-4.

Østerlund, A.H., Lander, F., Nielsen, K., et al. (2017) Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries: a case-crossover study in two Danish emergency departments. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 43(3): 217–225. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.3615.

Pérez, R.E., Benavides, F.G., Levecque, K., et al. (2012) Differences in working conditions and employment arrangements among migrant and non-migrant workers in Europe. Ethnicity & Health 17(6): 563–577. DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2012.730606.

Pink, S., Tutt, D., Dainty, A., et al. (2010) Ethnographic methodologies for construction research: knowing, practice and interventions. Building Research & Information 38(6): 647–659. DOI: 10.1080/09613218.2010.512193.

Quinlan, M., and Bohle, P. (2008) Under pressure, out of control, or home alone? Reviewing research and policy debates on the occupational health and safety effects of outsourcing and home-based work. International Journal of Health Services 38(3): 489–523. DOI: 10.2190/HS.38.3.g.

Quinlan, M., and Sokas, R.K. (2009) Community campaigns, supply chains, and protecting the health and well-being of workers. American Journal of Public Health 99(3). 2009/11/06 ed.: S538-46. DOI: 10.2105/ajph.2008.149120.

Rambøll (2016) Analyse af Udenlandske Tjenesteyderes Karakteristika og Behov [Analysis of Foreign Providers’ Characteristics and Needs]. Copenhagen: Arbejdstilsynet. Available at: https://at.dk/media/2373/analyse-udenlandske-tjenesteyderes-karakteristika-behov.pdf.

Rasmussen, C.D.N., Jørgensen, M.B., Carneiro, I.G., et al. (2012) Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventing physical deterioration. Ergonomics 55(2): 256–264. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2011.592651.

Rasmussen, M. (2016) Notat: Flere østeuropæiske arbejdstagere er en god nyhed for Danmark [More Easteuropean workers are good new for Denmark]. Copenhagen: Tænketanken Europa. Available at: http://thinkeuropa.dk/sites/default/files/notat_flere_oesteuropaeiske_arbejdere_er_en_god_nyhed.pdf.

Rasmussen, S., Refslund, B., Sørensen, O.H., et al. (2016) Reducing Precarious Work in Europe through Social Dialogue: The case of Denmark. Aalborg: Aalborg University. Available at: https://vbn.aau.dk/ws/portalfiles/portal/244600846/Denmark_final_report.pdf.

Refslund, B. (2021) When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting. Economic and Industrial Democracy 42(2): 314–335. DOI: 10.1177/0143831X18760989.

Refslund, B., and Arnholtz, J. (2021) Power resource theory revisited: The perils and promises for understanding contemporary labour politics. Economic and Industrial Democracy: 0143831X211053379. DOI: 10.1177/0143831X211053379.

Refslund, B., and Sippola, M. (2020) Migrant workers trapped between individualism and collectivism: The formation of union-based workplace collectivism. Economic and Industrial Democracy: 0143831X20967412. DOI: 10.1177/0143831X20967412.

Reid, A., Lenguerrand, E., Santos, C., et al. (2014) Taking risks and survival jobs: Foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 7(1): 378–386. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.47.

Salminen, S. (2011) Are immigrants at increased risk of occupational injury? A Literature Review. The Ergonomics Open Journal 4: 125–130. DOI: 10.2174/1875934301104010125.

Samant, Y., and Nyrønning, C. (2018) Are Migrant Workers Injured More Often Than Norwegian Workers: A Risk reduction Strategy For All Workers. Oslo: Ramazzini. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325102544_Are_Migrant_Workers_Injured_More_Often_Than_Norwegian_Workers_A_Risk_reduction_Strategy_For_All_Workers_Norwegian_Ramazzini_argang_25_-_2018_NR_1_side_5-9.

Schenker, M. (2008) Work-related injuries among immigrants: a growing global health disparity. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65(11): 717–718.

Schenker, M.B. (2010) A global perspective of migration and occupational health. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53(4): 329–337.

Schubert, U., and Dijkstra, J.J. (2009) Working safely with foreign contractors and personnel. Safety Science 47(6): 786–793. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2008.02.001.

Simkunas, D.P., and Thomsen, T.L. (2018) Precarious work? Migrants’ narratives of coping with working conditions in the Danish labour market. Central and Eastern European Migration Review 7: 35–51. DOI: 10.17467/ceemr.2018.09.

Sippola, M. (2013) The awkward choices facing the Baltic worker: exit or loyalty. Journal of Baltic Studies 44(4): 451–473. DOI: 10.1080/01629778.2013.779059.

Sitalakshmi, R., Saikumar, P., Jeyachandran, P., et al. (2016) Civil construction work: The unseen contributor to the occupational and global disease burden. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine 20(2): 103–108. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5278.197542.

Smith, L.H., Hviid, K., Frydendall, K.B., et al. (2013) Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10(10). 2013/10/17 ed.: 4996–5010. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10104996.

Sorensen, G., McLellan, D.L., Sabbath, E.L., et al. (2016) Integrating worksite health protection and health promotion: A conceptual model for intervention and research. Preventive Medicine 91. United States: Elsevier Inc: 188–196. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.08.005.

Sorensen, G., Dennerlein, J.T., Peters, S.E., et al. (2021) The future of research on work, safety, health and wellbeing: A guiding conceptual framework. Social Science & Medicine 269: 113593. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113593.

Spangenberg, S., Baarts, C., Dyreborg, J., et al. (2003) Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers. Safety Science 41(6): 517–530. DOI: 10.1016/S0925-7535(02)00007-3.

Spanger, M., and Hvalkof, S.D. (2020) Migranters Mobilitet: Mellem Kriminalisering, Menneskehandel Og Udnyttelse På Det Danske Arbejdsmarked [Migrant Mobility: Between Kriminalisation, Trafficking and Exploitation in the Danish Labour Market]. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag. Available at: https://vbn.aau.dk/ws/portalfiles/portal/348073070/Migranters_mobilitet_OA.pdf.

Sterud, T., Tynes, T., Mehlum, I.S., et al. (2018) A systematic review of working conditions and occupational health among immigrants in Europe and Canada. BMC Public Health 18(1): 770. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5703-3.

Tutt, D., Pink, S., Dainty, A.R.J., et al. (2013) ‘In the air’ and below the horizon: migrant workers in UK construction and the practice-based nature of learning and communicating OHS. Construction Management and Economics 31(6): 515–527. DOI: 10.1080/01446193.2012.756145.

Wang, Z., and Jing, X. (2018) Job satisfaction among immigrant workers: A review of determinants. Social Indicators Research 139(1): 381–401. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-017-1708-z.

Winter, S. (2019) “It’s the Economy, Stupid!”: On the relative impact of political and economic determinants on migration. Population Research and Policy Review 39(2): 207–252. DOI: 10.1007/s11113-019-09529-y.

Yanar, B., Kosny, A., and Smith, P.M. (2018) Occupational health and safety vulnerability of recent immigrants and refugees. International Journal of environmental Research and Public Health 15(9): 2004. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15092004.




How to Cite

Overgaard, C., Jespersen, M., Høgedahl, L., & Thomsen, T. L. (2023). Migrants’ Work Environment in the Danish Construction Sector: a Scoping Study. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.18291/njwls.135435