Reach and Recruitment of Microentrepreneurs: Lessons from a Finnish Health Promotion Intervention




Health, Working Environment & Wellbeing, Work/Life Balance


Even though entrepreneurial work is stressful, health promotion interventions are seldom targeted at entrepreneurs, and we know little about how to reach and recruit this hard-to-reach group to such studies. We described and evaluated the recruitment process of a mobile health application intervention study aimed at enhancing work ability and recovery. Finnish microentrepreneurs (N = 1243) were registered for the intervention. We analyzed surveys, interviews, and registration data. Most participants registered through email invitations. The registered microentrepreneurs were not representative of all Finnish microentrepreneurs; females and highly educated individuals were overrepresented, and those working in agriculture were underrepresented. Differences be- tween registration routes were observed: females registered more often through the self-enrollment route, whereas males and older entrepreneurs registered more often through email invitations. The findings indicate that recruitment strategies are associated with participant characteristics. To increase participation rates, persuasive recruitment approaches are needed.

Author Biographies

Jaana-Piia Mäkiniemi, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

Specialist researcher. E-mail:

Salla Ahola, Tampere University

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Faculty of Management and Business

Eveliina Korkiakangas, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

Specialist Researcher

Tiina Kaksonen, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

Senior Communications Specialist

Kirsi Heikkilä-Tammi, Tampere University

Research Director, Faculty of Management and Business

Jaana Laitinen, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

Research professor

Markku Kekkonen, University of Oulu

Doctoral Researcher, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering

Matti Muhos, University of Oulu

Director, Professor, Kerttu Saalasti Institute

Tuula Oksanen, University of Eastern Finland

Professor of Occupational Health

Harri Oinas-Kukkonen, University of Oulu

Professor of Information Systems Science, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering

Anna-Mari Simunaniemi, University of Oulu

Research Director, Kerttu Saalasti Institute


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How to Cite

Mäkiniemi, J.-P., Ahola, S., Korkiakangas, E., Kaksonen, T., Heikkilä-Tammi, K., Laitinen, J., Kekkonen, M., Muhos, M., Oksanen, T., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Simunaniemi, A.-M. (2022). Reach and Recruitment of Microentrepreneurs: Lessons from a Finnish Health Promotion Intervention. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 13(1).