Hvem er “vi” egentlig?

Om Paulus’ brug af flertalsformer i Galaterbrevet


  • Martin Friis Københavns Universitet




Galatians, Perspectives on Paul, Pauline Christology, Pauline pneumatology, Pauline ecclesiology


This article explores Paul’s use of first-person plural forms in Galatians (specifically Gal 2:15-16; 3:13-14; 3:23-29; 4:1-7 and 4:26 and 31). Proponents of the ‘Sonderweg perspective’ and of ‘the radical new perspective on Paul’ argue that Paul uses these forms as a rhetorical device. He seeks to identify himself with his non-Jewish audience without implying that he himself nor his fellow Jews share in ‘our’ (i.e., non-Jewish) experiences. In opposition to this view, this article presents a ‘new Pauline perspective’ understanding of Paul’s use of ‘we’/’our’. Instead of assuming that his ‘we’ should be construed as ‘you’, it is argued that it ought to be seen as an inclusive ‘we’. Throughout his argumentation in Galatians Paul actively alludes to experiences that he himself and his fellow Christ-believing Jews have partaken in, including the reception of the Spirit, adoption, and liberation from slavery of the flesh and from being ‘under the Law’.


Anderson, R. Dean. 1999. Ancient Rhetorical Theory and Paul. Leuven: Peeters.

Betz, Hans Dieter. 1975. “The Literary Composition and Function of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians.” New Testament Studies 21: 353-379.

Betz, Hans Dieter. 1979. Galatians. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

Bruce, F.F. 1982. The Epistle to the Galatians,.The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdsmans Publishing Company.

Campbell, Douglas A. 2005. The Quest for Paul’s Gospel. A Suggested Strategy. London og New York: T&T Clark.

Campbell, Douglas A. 2020. Pauline Dogmatics. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdsmans Publishing Company.

Classen, C. Joachim. 2019. “St. Paul’s Epistles and ancient Greek and Roman Rhetoric.” I Nanos 2019b, 95-113. Opr. i Rhetorical Criticism of the New Testament (2000): 1-28.

Das, Andrew. 2020. “The Traditional Protestant Perspective on Paul.” I Perspectives on Paul, red. Scot McKnight & B.J. Oropeza, 83-106. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

de Boer, Martinus. 2013. Galatians. A Commentary. The New Testament Library. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Donaldson, Terence L. 2006a. “Jewish Christianity, Israel’s Stumbling and the Sonderweg Reading of Paul.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 29.1: 27-54.

Donaldson, Terence L. 2006b2. Paul and the Gentiles. Remapping the Apostle’s Convictional World. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Dunn, James D.G. 1992. “The Justice of God: A Renewed Perspective on Justification by Faith.” The Journal of Theological Studies 43/1: 13-15.

Dunn, James D.G. 1993. The Epistle to the Galatians. Black’s New Testament Commentaries. London: A & C Black.

Eisenbaum, Pamela. 2009. Paul was not a Christian. The Original Message of a Misunderstood Apostle. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

Engberg-Pedersen, Troels (red.). 2019. Paulus og jødedommen. København: Akademisk Forlag.

Fredriksen, Paula. 2015. “The Question of Worship: Gods, Pagans, and the Redemption of Israel.” I Paul within Judaism. Restoring the First-Century Context of the Apostle, red. Nanos & Zetterholm 2015, 175-201.

Fredriksen, Paula. 2017. Paul the Pagans’ Apostle. New Haven og London: Yale University Press.

Gager, John G. 2000. Reinventing Paul. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gaston, Lloyd. 19902. Paul and the Torah. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Gorman, Michael. 20172. Apostle of the Crucified Lord. A Theological Introduction to Paul and his Letters. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdsmans Publishing Company.

Hallbäck, Geert. 2001. “Galaterbrevet som helhed.” I Læsninger i Galaterbrevet, red. Lone Fatum, 25-42. København: Fremad.

Hays, Richard B. 20022. The Faith of Christ. The Narrative Substructure of Galatians 3:1-3:11. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdsmans Publishing Company.

Hock, Ronald F. 20162. “Paul and Greco-Roman Education.” I Paul in the Greco-Roman World. A Handbook. Volume 1, red. John Paul Sampley, 230-253. London og New York: T&T Clark.

Hodge, Caroline. 2007. If Sons, then Heirs: A Study of Kinship and Ethnicity in the Letters of Paul. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hodge, Caroline. 2015. “The Question of Identity: Gentiles as Gentiles – but also Not – in Pauline Communities.” I Nanos & Zetterholm 2015, 153-173.

Keener, Craig S. 2019. Galatians. A Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

Longenecker, Richard N. 1990. Galatians. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, TX: Word Books.

Martyn, J. Louis. 1997. Galatians. The Anchor Yale Bible. New Haven og London: Yale University Press.

Matera, Frank J. 1992. Galatians. Sacra Pagina. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.

Mortensen, Jacob. 2018. “Filipperbrevet 3,2-11 og det “radikalt” nye perspektiv (eller “Paul Within Judaism”).” Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift 81: 189-204.

Mussner, Franz. 1979. Traktat über die Juden. München: Kösel-Verlag.

Nanos, Mark D. & Magnus Zetterholm (red.). 2015. Paul within Judaism. Restoring the First-Century Context of the Apostle. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.

Nanos, Mark D. 2002. The Irony of Galatians. Paul’s Letter in First-Century Context. Minneapolis, Fortress Press.

Nanos, Mark D. 2015a. “Introduction.” I Nanos & Zetterholm 2015, 1-29.

Nanos, Mark D. 2015b. “The Question of Conceptualization: Qualifying Paul’s Position on Circumcision in Dialogue with Josephus’s Advisors to King Izates.” I Nanos & Zetterholm 2015, 105-152.

Nanos, Mark D. 2019a. “The Inter- and Intra-Jewish Political Context of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians. “ I Nanos 2019b, 396-407.

Nanos, Mark D. 2019b (red.), The Galatians Debate. Contemporary Issues in Rhetorical and Historical Interpretation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic 20192.

Oakes, Peter. 2015. Galatians. Paideia Commentaries on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

Porter, Stanley E. & Bryan R. Dryer (red.). 2016. Paul and Ancient Rhetoric: Theory and Practice in the Hellenistic Context. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sampley, J. Paul & Peter Lampe (red.). 2010. Paul and Rhetoric. London og New York: T&T Clark.

Stowers, Stanley. 1994. A Rereading of Romans. Justice, Jews, and Gentiles. New Haven og London: Yale University Press.

Stowers, Stanley. 2003. “Apostrophe, ΠΡΟΣΩΠΟΠΟΙΙΑ and Paul’s Rhetorical Education.” I Early Christianity and Classical Culture: Comparative Studies in Honor of Abraham J. Malherbe, red. John T. Fitzgerald m.fl., 351-369. Leiden: Brill.

Stubbergaard, Sigurd V. 2018. Den Jødiske Paulus. Det Traditionelle, Det Nye og Det Radikalt Nye Paulusbillede. Frederiksberg: Eksistensen.

Thiessen, Matthew. 20182. Paul and the Gentile Problem. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Westerholm, Stephen. 2004. Perspectives Old and New on Paul. The “Lutheran” Paul and his Critics. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Williams, Sam K. 1997. Galatians. Abingdon New Testament Commentaries. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.

Witherington III, Ben. 1998. Grace in Galatia. A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians. Grand Rapids: MI: William B. Eerdsmans Publishing Company.

Wright, N.T. 2005. Paul: Fresh Perspectives. London: SPCK.

Wright, N.T. 2006. “4QMMT and Paul: Justification, ‘Works’ and Eschatology.” I Pauline Perspectives. Essays on Paul. 1978-2013, red. N.T. Wright, 332-355. London: SPCK 2013. Opr. i History and Exegesis: New Testament Essays in Honor of Dr E. Earle Ellis for his 80th Birthday, red. Sang-Won [Aaron] Son, 104-132. London: T&T Clark International 2006.

Wright, N.T. 2009. Justification and God’s Vision. London: SPCK.

Wright, N.T. 2013. Paul and the Faithfulness of God. Part III and IV. London: SPCK.

Zeller, Dieter. 1973. Juden und Heiden in der Mission des Paulus. Studien zum Römerbrief. Stuttgart: Verlag Katolisches Bibelwerk.

Zetterholm, Magnus. 2009. Approaches to Paul. A Student’s Guide to Recent Scholarship. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.





Friis, M. (2021). Hvem er “vi” egentlig? : Om Paulus’ brug af flertalsformer i Galaterbrevet. Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift, 84(2), 167–196. https://doi.org/10.7146/dtt.v84i2.129661