Justin som bibelteolog

  • Mogens Müller Københavns Universitet
Nøgleord: Justin Old Testament Septuagint New Testament biblical theology biblical interpretation biblical hermeneutics infallibility of Scripture monopoly of understanding Scripture Christology virgin birth Jesus as god in Old Testament proof from Scripture testimonia-collections apologetics, Justin, OId Testament, Septuagint, New Testament, Biblical theology, Biblical interpretation, Biblical hermeneutics, infallibility of Scripture, Monopoly of understanding Scripture, Christology, Virgin birth, Jesus as God in Old Testament, proof from Scripture, testimonia-collections, apologetics

Resumé

Justin Martyr (dead ca. 165) is the earliest known Christian author to develop a Biblical theology. At the same time, he is the last one to acknowledge the Old Testament as Scripture. Especially in his Dialogue with the Jew Trypho, but already in the two Apologies Justin quotes Jewish Holy Scripture extensively. He is the first Christian author to refer to the Septuagint legend about the translation of the Pentateuch, which he extends also to include the translation of the other parts of the Old Testament. Justin is not only convinced about the infallibility of Scripture: he also maintains that the Christians are alone competent to know its real meaning because only they possess the Holy Spirit. The article looks upon Justin as a Bible theologian, focusing on what the Old Greek translation, the Septuagint, contributed to the development of his theology. The rendering ‘virgin’ in Isaiah 7,14 became a point of departure for his distinguishing in a series of Old Testament stories between the eternal, invisible God and another god, an ἕτερος θεός, who acted in a figure visible to humans and who was the pre-existent Christ. In his selection of Old Testament texts, Justin seems to have aimed at giving content to the saying in Luke 24,44. Thus, he delivers proof from Scripture for the belief that the promised Messiah must be identified with Jesus. As to the question of how Justin became acquainted with Old Testament Scripture, the article defends the view that it was mainly through independent reading. Thus, he did not use any already existing collections of testimonia. Rather, he created one. To the old question of how Justin could quote the same text in different versions, the preferred answer in this article is that the Dialogue mainly consists of older manuscripts, which Justin had, in an old age, mechanically worked together, not so much in order to convince Jews as to offer a manual for Christians who might be tempted by a Jewish understanding of Scripture.

Referencer

Abramowski, Luise, “Die „Erinnerungen der Apostel“ bei Justin”, Das Evangelium und die Evangelien, red. Peter Stuhlmacher, WUNT 28 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1983) 341-353.
Altaner, Berthold /Alfred Stuiber, Patrologie (Freiburg: Herder 71966).
Baker, Aelred, “Justin’s Agraphon in the Dialogue with Trypho” JBL 87 (1968) 277-287.
Barthélemy, Dominique, Les Devanciers d’Aquila: Première publication intégrale du texte des fragments du Dodécapropheton. VT.S 19 (Leiden: Brill 1963).
Bellinzoni, A.J., The Sayings of Jesus in the Writings of Justin Martyr. VT.S 17 (Leiden: Brill 1967).
Bousset, Wilhelm, Jüdisch-Christlicher Schulbetrieb in Alexandria und Rom. Literarische Untersuchungen zu Philo und Clemens von Alexandria Justin und Irenäus. FRLANT 23 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1915).
Campenhausen, Hans Freiherr von, Die Entstehung der christlichen Bibel. BHTh 39 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1968).
Christensen, Torben, ”Til spørgsmålet om kristendommens hellenisering”, i Festskrift til N.H. Søe 29. november 1965 (København: G.E.C. Gad 1965) 11-32.
Christensen, Torben, Bemærkninger og overvejelser til Niels Hyldahl: Philosophie und Christentum. Eine Interpretation der Einleitung zum Dialog Justins”. DTT 29 (1966) 193-232 (heri et ”Supplementum. Enhed og brudlinjer i Dialogens Indledning”, 221-232).
Christensen, Torben, “Justin og testimonia-traditionen. Oskar Skarsaunes doktorafhandling.” NTT 84 (1983), 39-62.
Derrett, J.Duncan M., ‘Ο ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΕΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣΕΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΞΥΛΟΥ’, VigChr 43 (1989) 378-392.
Euseb: Kirkehistorien & Om dem, der led martyrdøden i Palæstina. Oversættelse og indledninger ved Jørgen Ledet Christiansen og Helge Kjær Nielsen. Antikken og kristendommen 8 (København: ANIS 2011).
Goodspeed, Edgar J., Die ältesten Apologeten. Texte mit kurzen Einleitungen (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1914, reprint 1984).
Grane, Leif, ”Sammenhængen i Justins Apologi. Ulærde betragtninger over enheden i Justins tænkning”. DTT 34 (1971) 110-129.
Gregory, Andrew, The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period before Irenaeus. WUNT II,169 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2003).
Hengel, Martin, ”Die Septuaginta als ”christliche Schriftsammlung”, ihre Vorgeschichte und das Problem ihres Kanons”, Die Septuaginta zwischen Judentum und Christentum, red. Martin Hengel und Anna Maria Schwemer, WUNT 72 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1994).
Horst, P.W. van der, “I gave them laws that were not good. Ezekiel 20:25 in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity”, i J.N. Bremmer & F. García Martínez (ed.), Sacred History and Sacred Texts in Early Judaism. A Symposium in Honour of A.S. van der Woude. Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology 5 (Kampen: Pharos 1992) 94-118.
Hyldahl, Niels, Philosophie und Christentum. Eine Interpretation der Einleitung zum Dialog Justins, AThD 9 (København: Munksgaard 1966).
Justins Apologier. Oversat med indledning og kommentar ved Henrik Pontoppidan Thyssen. Bibel og historie 18 (Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag 1996).
Justinos Martyrs Forsvarsskrift for Kristendommen oversat og forsynet med Indledning og Noter af F. Friis Berg (København: Lohse 1932).
Justinus Martyrs Apologier eller Forsvarsskrifter for Christendommen. Oversættelse af Carl Høffding Muus (Kjøbenhavn: Jens Hostrup Schultz 1836).
Justins Dialog med jøden Tryfon. Oversat med indledning og noter af Jørgen Ledet Christiansen, Niels Hyldahl og Mogens Müller. Antikken og kristendommen 10 (København: ANIS 2012).
Lindemann, Andreas, Paulus im ältesten Christentum. Das Bild des Apostels und die Rezeption der paulinischen Theologie in der frühchristlichen Literatur bis Marcion. BHTh 58 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1979).
Mach, Michael, “Justin Martyr’s Dialogus cum Tryphone Iudaeo and the Development of Christian Anti-Judaism’, Contra Iudaeos. Ancient and Medieval Polemics between Christians and Jews, red. Ora Limor & Guy G. Stroumsa, Texts and Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Judaism 10 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1996) 27-47.
Musurillo, H., The Acts of the Christian Martyrs. Introduction, Texts and Translations (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1972)
Markellos af Ankyra, Om den sande religion. Oversættelse, indledning og kommentar ved Henrik P. Thyssen. Bibel og historie 16 (Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag 2009).
Müller, Mogens, Gnostikerne og Bibelen. Ptolemæus og hans brev til Flora. Indledning, oversættelse og kommentarer, Tekst & Tolkning 9 (København: Akademisk Forlag 1991).
Müller, Mogens, ”Historie som teologi. Om afviklingen af Moseloven i Lukasskrifterne”, Det gamle Testamente i jødedom og kristendom, red. M. Müller & John Strange, Forum for Bibelsk Eksegese 4 (København: Museum Tusculanum 1993) 123-150; optrykt i samme, Skriften i Skriften. Mellem tradition og reception. Fjorten afhandlinger. 2. ændrede udgave. Publikationer fra Det Teologiske Fakultet 22 (København 2011) 139-164.
Müller, Mogens, Kirkens første Bibel. Hebraica sive Graeca veritas (Frederiksberg: ANIS 1994).
Müller, Mogens, “The Reception of the Old Testament in Mat¬thew and Luke-Acts: From Interpretation to Proof from Scripture”, NT 43 (2001) 315-330 (dansk udgave i samme, Skriften i Skriften, 70-84).
Müller, Mogens, ”Den sande gudsdyrkelses oprindelse – en skitse”, DTT 70 (2007) 83-92.
Müller, Mogens, “Pesher Commentary and Its Afterlife in the New Testament”, The Mermaid and the Partridge. Essays from the Copenhagen Conference on Revising Texts from Cave Four, red. George Brooke & Jesper Høgenhaven, StTDJ 96 (Leiden: Brill 2011) 279-287.
Müller, Mogens, ”Justin og hans Bibel”, Patristik 11 (2013) 1-19 (www.patristik.dk/Patristik11.pdf).
Müller, Mogens, “Die Septuaginta als Bibeltext in der ältesten Kirche. Graeca veritas contra Hebraica veritas”, Die Septuaginta – Text, Wirkung, Rezeption, red. Wolfgang Kraus und Siegfried Kreuzer in Verbindung mit Martin Meiser und Marcus Sigismund, WUNT 325 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2014) 613-636.
Müller, Mogens, ”’Jeg er, før Abraham blev født’ (Joh 8,58). Forestillingen om Jesu præeksistens i Johannesevangeliet”, Præeksistens, red. Kristian Mejrup, Søren Holst og Søren Feldtfos Thomsen, Forum for Bibelsk Eksegese 18 (København: Museum Tusculanum 2014) 211-226.
Müller, Mogens, ””Guds Israel“ i Gal 6,16 og „hele Israel“ i Rom 11,26. Til spørgsmålet om den kristne menighed som det sande Israel i Det Nye Testamente og den ældste kirke”. DTT 78 (2015; FS Niels Peter Lemche) 282-298.
Müller, Mogens, ”Septuagintas betydning for udfoldelsen af nytestamentlig teologi”. DTT 79 (2016) 139-151 og 162-176.
Mynster, Jakob Peter, ”Om Justinus Martyrs Brug af vore Evangelier”, i Videnskabelige Forhandlinger ved Sjællands Stifts Landemode (1809), bind 1 (Kiøbenhavn 1812) 126-167; optrykt i samme, Blandede Skrivter 4 (Kiøbenhavn: Gyldendalske Boghandling 1855) 357-398; tysk: ’Ueber den Gebrauch unsrer Evangelien in den Schriften Justinus Martyrers’, i Kleine theologische Schriften (Kopenhagen: Gyldendal 1825) 1-48.
Noack, Bent, „Si passibilis Christus“. SEÅ 37-38. FS Harald Riesenfeld (1972-1973) 211-221; optrykt i samme, Fra det exegetiske værksted. Artikler og notater. Udgivet af Sigfred Pedersen (København: G.E.C. Gad 1992) 59-69, hvor der er tilføjet en undertitel: ”Lidelse, opstandelse og forkyndelse i Acta 26,23”.
O’Neill, John C., The Theology of Acts in ist Historical Setting (London 1961).
Osborne, Eric Francis, Justin Martyr. BHTh 47 (Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck) 1973).
Overbecks, Franz, „Ueber das Verhältniss Justins des Martyrers zur Apostelgeschichte.“ ZwTh 15 (1872) 305-349
Shotwell, Willis A., The Biblical Exegesis of Justin Martyr (London: SPCK 1965).
Skarsaune, Oskar, The Proof from Prophecy. A Study in Justin Martyr’s Proof-Text Tradition: Text-Type, Provenance, Theological Profile. NT.S 56 (Leiden: Brill 1987).
Ulrich, Jörg, ”Justin Martyr”, Til forsvar for kristendommen. Tidlige kristne apologeter, red. Jakob Engberg, Anders-Christian Jacobsen og Jörg Ulrich, Antikken og Kristendommen 3 (København: ANIS 2006) 85-106.
Vermes, Geza, Christian Beginnings. From Nazareth to Nicaea (AD 30-325)(London: Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books 2012).
Wendel, Susan, Scriptural Interpretation and Community Self-Definition in Luke-Acts and the Writings of Justin Martyr. NT.S 139 (Leiden: Brill 2011).
Publiceret
2019-05-06
Citation/Eksport
Müller, M. (2019). Justin som bibelteolog. Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift, 81(3), 160-188. https://doi.org/10.7146/dtt.v81i3.113901
Sektion
Artikler