From echoes of silence to whispers of hope: A journey with survivors of sexual violence
This paper outlines the narratives of a female and male survivor of sexual violence. It draws attention to the benefits of assisting survivors break their silence as a strategy to overcome the sequelae of shame that accompanies these acts. The two cases illustrate that both men and women experience sexual violation as de-humanising and assisting them to access and make meaning of their memories can be empowering. The need to develop a screening tool to assist survivors access treatment in a timely manner and further develop appropriate strategies incorporating both individual and group sessions is highlighted.
Askin, K. D. (2003). Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles, 21 Berkeley J. Int'l Law, 288. doi:https://doi.org/10.15779/Z384D2S
Ba, I., & Bhopal, R. S. (2017). Physical, mental and social consequences in civilians who have experienced war-related sexual violence: a systematic review (1981-2014). Public Health, 142, 121-135. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2016.07.019
Berman, H. M., S Derby, L Voia (2006). A Narrative Study of Refugee Women Who Have Experienced Violence in the Context of War. CJNR, 38(4), 32-53.
Buchowska, N. (2016). Violated or protected. Women's rights in armed conflicts after the Second World War. International Comparative Jurisprudence, 2(2), 72-80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icj.2016.12.002
Chynoweth, D. S. (2017). "We Keep It in Our Heart" - Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in the Syria Crisis, . UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Retrieved from https://www.refworld.org/
De Jong, K., Knipscheer, J.W., Ford, N. and Kleber, R.J. (2014). The Efficacy of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults in Contexts of Ongoing Man-Made Violence:A Systematic Review. Health, 6, 504-516. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2014.66070
Doja, A. (2018). Politics of mass rapes in ethnic conflict: a morphodynamics of raw madness and cooked evil. Crime Law Soc Change. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-018-9800-0
Fernandes, P., & Aiello, Y. (2018). Breaking the silence through MANTRA: Empowering Tamil MAN survivors of torture and rape. Torture Journal, 28(3), 14-29.
Hynes, H. P. (2004). On the battlefield of women's bodies: An overview of the harm of war to women. Womens Studies International Forum, 27(5-6), 431-445. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2004.09.001
Linos, N. (2009 ). Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing? Soc Sci Med., 68(8), 1548-1551. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.02.001
Patel, N., Rytter, T. (2016). Good Practices and Current Challenges in the Rehabilitation of Torture Survivors. Copenhagen, Denmark: Convention Against Torture Initiative. Retrieved from https://cti2024.org
Schopper, D. (2014). Responding to the needs of survivors of sexual violence: Do we know what works? International Review of the Red Cross, 96(894), 585-600. doi:10.1017/S1816383114000460
Sivakumaran, S. (2007). Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict. The European Journal of International Law, 18(2), 253−276. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm013
Solangon, S., & Patel, P. (2012). Sexual violence against men in countries affected by armed conflict. Conflict, Security & Development, 12(4), 417-442. doi:10.1080/14678802.2012.724794
Tappis, H., Freeman, J., Glass, N., & Doocy, S. (2016). Effectiveness of Interventions, Programs and Strategies for Gender-based Violence Prevention in Refugee Populations: An Integrative Review. PLoS Curr, 8. doi:10.1371/currents.dis.3a465b66f9327676d61eb8120eaa5499
Tol, W. A., Stavrou, V., Greene, M. C., Mergenthaler, C., van Ommeren, M., & Garcia Moreno, C. (2013). Sexual and gender-based violence in areas of armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support interventions. Confl Health, 7(1), 16. doi:10.1186/1752-1505-7-16
Touquet, H., & Gorris, E. (2016). Out of the shadows? The inclusion of men and boys in conceptualisations of wartime sexual violence. Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), 36-46. doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2016.04.007
Vu, A., Adam, A., Wirtz, A., Pham, K., Rubenstein, L., Glass, N., . . . Singh, S. (2014). The Prevalence of Sexual Violence among Female Refugees in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS Curr, 6. doi:10.1371/currents.dis.835f10778fd80ae031aac12d3b533ca7
Wynne Russell, A. H., Michael Peel, Lizle Loots, Liz Dartnall. (2011). Care and Support of Male Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Sexual Violence Research Initiative.
Zawati, H. M. (2007). Impunity or Immunity: Wartime Male Rape and Sexual Torture as a Crime against Humanity. Torture Journal, 17(1), 27-47.
Authors will be asked to sign a transfer of copyright agreement, which recognises the common interest that both journal and author(s) have in the protection of copyright. We accept that some authors (e.g. government employees in some countries) are unable to transfer copyright. The copyright covers both the Torture Journal and the IRCT web site. The publisher will not put any limitation on the personal freedom of the author to use material contained in the paper in other works which may be published, provided that acknowledgement is made to the original place of publication.