FRA GOEDHART TIL GUTERRES: EN KVANTITATIV INDHOLDSANALYSE AF TALER FRA DE FORENEDE NATIONERS HØJKOMMISSARIAT FOR FLYGTNINGE (UNHCR), 1951-2014

  • Phillip Stenmann Baun Stud.mag, Institut for Kultur og Samfund, Aarhus Universitet
Nøgleord: Kvantitativ indholdsanalyse, metode, UNHCR, taler, flygtningehøjkommissariatet

Resumé

Kvantitativ indholdsanalyse som historisk metode: En analyse af taler fra De Forenede Nationers Højkommissariat for Flygtninge (UNHCR), 1951-2014

Phillip Stenmann Baun

Denne artikel undersøger, ved hjælp af en kvantitativ og kvalitativ indholdsanalyse, FN’s flygtningehøjkommissariats historie. Gennem historien har UNHCR udvidet sit råderum til at dække stadigt større grupper af nødstedte flygtninge og ikke-flygtninge. Ydermere har organisationen ekspanderet sit kompetenceområde i håndteringen af flygtninges mangesidede vilkår, blandt andet gennem ydelsen af materiel bistand, tidlig intervention, ”containment”-politik, såvel som præventive foranstaltninger såsom at fokusere på udvikling og selvforsyningsprojekter. I analysen af et større antal taler fra højkommissærerne, er et hovedargument, at den kvantitative indholdsanalyse som metode kan være gavnlig for den historiske forskningsproces – så længe man tager sig sine kildekritiske forbehold. Ved at undersøge forekomsten og frekvensen af bestemte ord i talerne, finder den kvantitative indholdsanalyse, at omtalen af bestemte udviklinger indenfor UNHCR korrelerer med samtidige internationale udviklinger. Derved træder højkommissærens aktive rolle frem i lyset i håndteringen af internationale kriser og nye udviklinger. Analysen finder også at højkommissæren nyder godt af et symbiotisk forhold med FN’s Generalforsamling, ved at agere både som katalysator for dagsordensfastsættelsen og som et legitimerende talerør for Forsamlingens kollektive stemme.

Referencer

Litteratur

Fremført materiale

Alle 703 taler fra UNHCR’s flygtningehøjkommissærer holdt mellem 9. april 1951 og 29. maj 2014 kan frit findes på https://www.unhcr.org/ eller downloades fra https://www.kaggle.com/benrudolph/unhcr-speeches/ som en samlet datapakke i enten JSON eller CSV-filformat (bruger påkrævet).

Følgende taler er direkte citeret i artiklen (sorteret kronologisk):

Goedhart, Gerrit Jan van Heuven: ‘Speech made by Dr. Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the meeting of Swiss Aid to Europe held in Berne’, 19. February 1953, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb630/speech-made-dr-gerrit-jan-van-heuven-goedhart-united-nations-high-commissioner.html (20.12.2018).
Lindt, Auguste R.: ‘Notes for the address of Dr. Auguste R. Lindt, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly’, 4. November 1957, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb618/notes-address-dr-auguste-r-lindt-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Lindt, Auguste R.: ‘Statement by Dr. Auguste R. Lindt, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)’, 22. July 1958, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fca4/statement-dr-auguste-r-lindt-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Schnyder, Felix: ‘Statement by Mr. Felix Schnyder, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)’ 1. May 1961, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fd410/statement-mr-felix-schnyder-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-united.html (20.12.2018).
Schnyder, Felix: ‘Address by Mr. Felix Schnyder, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, delivered before the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe’ 27. September 1961, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb634/address-mr-felix-schnyder-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-delivered.html (20.12.2018).
Schnyder, Felix: ‘Statement by Mr. Felix Schnyder, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly’, 6. November 1961, https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb528/statement-mr-felix-schnyder-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-third.html (20.12.2018).
Schnyder, Felix: ‘Statement by Mr. Felix Schnyder, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, seventh session, Geneva’, 14. May 1962, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/49f81108e/statement-mr-felix-schnyder-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-executive.html (20.12.2018).
Schnyder, Felix: ‘Statement by Mr. Felix Schnyder, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Norwegian Refugee Council’, 9. October 1963, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fd310/statement-mr-felix-schnyder-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-norwegian.html?query=Schnyder%209%20October%201961 (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ’Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Global Meeting of Resident Representatives at Turin’, 1. April 1966, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fd030/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Lecture by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, University of Vienna’, 5. October 1966, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fc10/lecture-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Opening Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, fifteenth session’, 16. October 1966, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/49f81117e/opening-statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Opening Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, sixteenth session, Geneva’, 31. October 1966, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/49f81118e/opening-statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the twenty-sixth Session of the Council of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM)’, 16. November 1966, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fd11c/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Opening Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, seventeenth session’, 22. May 1967, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/49f8111a7/opening-statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Remarks by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, on the Middle East refugee situation, to the International Press Institute, Geneva’ 21. June 1967, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fcd20/remarks-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly’, 18. November 1968, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb510/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Opening Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, twenty-first session’, 28. September 1970, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/49f811231/opening-statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Statement of Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, about refugees from East Pakistan, and complete text of Press Conference questions and answers’, 5. May 1971, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb330/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Geneva’, 16. July 1971, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fd76/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Opening Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, twenty-fifth session, Geneva’, 14. October 1974, https://www.unhcr.org/en-ie/admin/hcspeeches/49f8112be/opening-statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner.html?query=Sadruddin%20Aga%20Khan,%2014%20October%201974 (20.12.2018).
Aga Khan, Sadruddin: ‘Statement by Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to UNHCR headquarters staff’, 30. January 1975, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb518/statement-prince-sadruddin-aga-khan-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees.html (20.12.2018).
Hartling, Poul: ‘Statement by Mr. Poul Hartling, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly’, 16. November 1981, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fb1c/statement-mr-poul-hartling-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-third.html?query=Poul%20Hartling%2016%20November%201981 (20.12.2018).
Hartling, Poul: ‘Address of Mr. Poul Hartling, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg’, 2. October 1982, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fca8/address-mr-poul-hartling-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-parliamentary.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘Statement by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the forty-eighth Session of Commission on Human Rights’, 20. February 1992, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fc210/statement-mrs-sadako-ogata-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-forty.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘Address by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to the Conference on Humanitarian Intervention, Sovereignty and the Future of International Society, Dartmouth College’, 18. May 1992, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fafc/address-mrs-sadako-ogata-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-conference.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘Refugees: Challenge of the 1990s" - Statement by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the New School for Social Research’, 11. November 1992, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fae18/refugees-challenge-1990s-statement-mrs-sadako-ogata-united-nations-high.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘Statement by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia, Geneva’, 16. December 1992, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fcc48/statement-mrs-sadako-ogata-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-steering.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘Statement by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the Roundtable Discussion on United Nations Human Rights Protection of Internally Displaced Persons, Nyon, Switzerland’, 5. February 1993, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68fad4/statement-mrs-sadako-ogata-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-roundtable.html (20.12.2018).
Ogata, Sadako: ‘"The Role of Humanitarian Action in Peacekeeping" - Keynote Address by Mrs. Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, at the 24th Annual Vienna Seminar, Vienna’ 5. July 1994, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/3ae68faa18/role-humanitarian-action-peacekeeping-keynote-address-mrs-sadako-ogata.html (20.12.2018).
Guterres, António: ‘Address by Mr. António Guterres, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to European Union Justice and Home Affairs Ministers, Brussels’, 6. December 2007, https://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/476132d920/address-mr-antonio-guterres-united-nations-high-commissioner-refugees-european.html (20.12.2018).

UN materiale

UN General Assembly: Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, A/RES/428(V), 14. December 1950, https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3628.html (20.12.2018).
UN General Assembly: ‘Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees’ United Nations Treaty Series, 189, 28. July 1951, 137, https://www.refworld.org/docid/3be01b964.html (20.12.2018).
UN General Assembly: General Assembly resolution 1167 (XII), “Chinese refugees in Hong Kong”, 26. November 1957, https://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (20.12.2018).
UN General Assembly: General Assembly resolution 1388 (XIV), “Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees”, 20. November 1959, https://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (20.18.2018).
UN General Assembly: General Assembly resolution 2958 (XXVII), “Assistance to Sudanese refugees returning from abroad”, 12. December 1972, https://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (20.18.2018).
UN General Assembly: General Assembly resolution 3271 (XXIX) “Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees”, 10. December 1974, https://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (20.18.2018).
UN General Assembly: General Assembly resolution A/RES/48/116, 2. December 1993, https://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (20.18.2018).
UNHCR, Populations Statistics Database: http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview (20.12.2018).

Trykt materiale

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Elie, Jérôme: ‘The Historical Roots of Cooperation Between the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the International Organization for Migration’, Global Governance 16 (3), 2010, 345-360.
Glasman, Joël: ‘Seeing Like A Refugee Agency. A Short History of UNHCR Classifications in Central Africa (1961–2015)’, Journal of Refugee Studies 30 (2), 2017, 337-362.
Kecskés, Gusztáv: ‘Collecting money at a global level. The UN fundraising campaign for the 1956 Hungarian refugees’, Eastern Journal of European Studies 5 (2), 2014, 33-60.
Krever, Tor ‘Mopping-up: UNHCR, Neutrality and Non-Refoulement since the Cold War’, Chinese Journal of International Law 10 (3), 2011, 587-608.
Loescher, Gil ‘UNHCR’s origins and early history: agency, influence, and power in global refugee policy’, Refuge 33 (1), 2017, 77-86.
Loescher, Gil: The UNHCR and world politics: a perilous path, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001.
O’Sullivan, Christopher D.: The United Nations: A Concise History, Florida, Krieger Publishing Company, 2010.
Publiceret
2020-01-13
Citation/Eksport
Baun, P. (2020). FRA GOEDHART TIL GUTERRES: EN KVANTITATIV INDHOLDSANALYSE AF TALER FRA DE FORENEDE NATIONERS HØJKOMMISSARIAT FOR FLYGTNINGE (UNHCR), 1951-2014. Temp - Tidsskrift for Historie, 10(19), 125-155. Hentet fra https://tidsskrift.dk/temp/article/view/118082