A Change Laboratory professional development intervention to motivate university teachers to identify and overcome barriers to the integration of ICT

Keywords: professional development, barriers, information and communication technologies, higher education, change laboratory, activity theory, transformative agency


Change is one of the central aims of professional development for information and communication technologies integration in education. Studies on the use of ICT in education highlights the large investments in infrastructure and professional development, and the limited results in students learning. Teachers’ professional development for ICT integration in education (TPD-ICT)  has evolved from the development of technical skills to pedagogical skills and content-related knowledge. The gold standard and design-based approaches have dominated TDP-ICT. This study presents the Change Laboratory (CL) method as a formative intervention to motivate teachers to identify and overcome the barriers to ICT integration. The results showed that a professional development intervention based on CL stimulates transformative agency in the participants. Six forms of transformative agency, namely resisting, criticizing, explicating, envisioning, committing to actions, and taking actions, were found during the CL. The transformative agency was essential to motivate teachers to identify and propose a model solution to overcome both first-order and second-order contextual barriers.


Abdul Razzak, N. (2013). The effectiveness of a university-based professional development program in developing Bahraini school leaders’ management and leadership competencies of implementing effective school-wide professional development and ICT integration. Professional Development in Education, 39(5), 732–753. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2012.759127

Almekhlafi, A. G. (2010). Teachers' perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms.(Report). Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), n/a.

Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers and Education, 52(1), 154–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.07.006

Bradshaw, P., Twining, P., & Walsh, C. S. (2012). The Vital Program: Transforming ICT Professional Development. The American journal of distance education, 26(2), 74-85. doi: 10.1080/08923647.2012.655553

Buabeng-Andoh, C. (2012). Factors influencing teachers ’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 8(1), 136–155.

Calderón, A. (2016). Historia del Currículum Matemático de Secundaria en Costa Rica desde 1890 al 2015. Uaricha Revista de Psicología, 13(30), 197–224. Retrieved from http://www.revistauaricha.umich.mx/ojs/index.php/uaricha/article/view/13

Castro, W. (2016). An Activity Theory Approach To Study Barriers of Faculty Regarding Technology Integration in Higher an Activity Theory Approach To Study Barriers of Education, INTED2016 Proceedings, pp. 7232-7241.

Castro, W. F., & Nyvang, T. (2018). From professors’ barriers to organisational conditions in ICT integration in higher education. Læring og medier, 10(18), doi: 10.7146/lom.v10i18.96143

Coto Chotto, M. (2008). Facilitating Communities of Practice in Teacher Professional Development. Sixth International Conference on Networked Learning, 54-60.

Curwood, J. S. (2013). Applying the Design Framework to Technology Professional Development. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 29(3), 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2013.10784710

Desantis, J. D. (2013). Exploring the Effects of Professional Development for the Interactive Whiteboard on Teachers ’ Technology Self-Efficacy. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 12, 343–362.

Engestrom, Y. (2001). Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080020028747

Engeström, Y. (1999). Innovative learning in work teams: Analyzing cycles of knowledge creation in practice. Perspectives on Activity Theory, 377–406. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812774.025

Engeström, Y. (2011). From design experiments to formative interventions. Theory & Psychology, 21(5), 598–628. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354311419252

Engeström, Y. (2015). Learning by Expanding (Second Ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Engeström, Y., Sannino, A., & Virkkunen, J. (2014). On the Methodological Demands of Formative Interventions. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 21(2), 118–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/10749039.2014.891868

Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02299597

Fraser, C., Kennedy, A., Reid, L., & McKinney, S. (2007). Teachers’ continuing professional development: contested concepts, understandings and models. Journal of In-service education, 33(2), 153-169. doi: 10.1080/13674580701292913

Gibson, P. a., Stringer, K., Cotten, S. R., Simoni, Z., O’Neal, L. J., & Howell-Moroney, M. (2014). Changing teachers, changing students? the impact of a teacher-focused intervention on students’ computer usage, attitudes, and anxiety. Computers and Education, 71, 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.10.002

Goktas, Y., Gedik, N., & Baydas, O. (2013). Enablers and barriers to the use of ICT in primary schools in Turkey: A comparative study of 2005-2011. Computers and Education, 68, 211–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.05.002

Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main barriers and possible enablers of ICTs Integration into pre-service teacher education programs. Educational Technology and Society, 12(1), 193–204. https://doi.org/Article

Groff, J., & Mouza, C. (2008). A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use. AACE Journal, 16(1), 21–46.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional Development and Teacher Change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3), 37–41. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135406002100000512

Haapasaari, A., Engeström, Y., & Kerosuo, H. (2014). The emergence of learners’ transformative agency in a Change Laboratory intervention. Journal of Education and Work, 9080(April 2014), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2014.900168

Haydn, T. A., & Barton, R. (2007). Common needs and different agendas: How trainee teachers make progress in their ability to use ICT in subject teaching. Some lessons from the UK. Computers and Education, 49(4), 1018–1036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2005.12.006

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223–252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-006-9022-5

Hixon, E., & Buckenmeyer, J. (2009). Revisiting Technology Integration in Schools: Implications for Professional Development. Computers in the Schools, 26(2), 130–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560902906070

Huang, R., & Price, J. K. (2014). ICT in Education in Global Context, 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43927-2

Illeris, K. (2014). Transformative Learning re-defined: as changes in elements of the identity. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 33(5), 573–586. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2014.917128

Jaipal Jamani, K. (2015). A Case Study of a TPACK-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development: Teaching Science with Blogs. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 15(2), 161-200.

Kennedy, A. (2005). Models of continuing professional development: a framework for analysis. Journal of In-Service Education, 31(2), 235–250. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674580500200277

Kinley, K. (2015). PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: AN ATTEMPT TO ENHANCE ICT USE IN TEACHING AT THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF BHUTAN. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. Ph.d.-serien for Det Humanistiske Fakultet, Aalborg Universitet, DOI: 10.5278/vbn.phd.hum.00008

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge TPCK for Educators. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2011.549829

Koh, J. H. L., & Chai, C. S. (2014). Teacher clusters and their perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) development through ICT lesson design. Computers and Education, 70, 222–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.08.017

Kopcha, T. J. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions of the barriers to technology integration and practices with technology under situated professional development. Computers and Education, 59(4), 1109–1121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.05.014

Kozma, R. B. (2008). Comparative Analysis of Policies for Ict in Education. International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, (2003), 1083–1096. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73315-9_68

Lavonen, J., Juuti, K., Aksela, M., & Meisalo, V. (2006). A professional development project for improving the use of information and communication technologies in science teaching. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 15(2), 159–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390600769144

Lawless, K. a., & Pellegrino, J. W. (2007). Professional Development in Integrating Technology Into Teaching and Learning: Knowns, Unknowns, and Ways to Pursue Better Questions and Answers. Review of Educational Research, 77, 575–614. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307309921

Lehiste, P. (2015). The impact of a professional development program on in-service teacher’s TPACK: A study from Estonia. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 66, 18–28.

Pajo, K., & Wallace, C. (2001). Barriers to the uptake of web-based technology by university teachers. The Journal of Distance Education, 16(1), 70–84. Retrieved from http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/171/127

Peeraer, J., & Van Petegem, P. (2012). The limits of programmed professional development on integration of information and communication technology in education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 1039–1056.

Phelps, R., & Graham, A. (2008). Developing technology together, together: A whole-school metacognitive approach to ICT teacher professional development. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(4), 125–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/10402454.2008.10784598

Polly, D., Mims, C., Shepherd, C. E., & Inan, F. (2010). Evidence of impact: Transforming teacher education with preparing tomorrow’s teachers to teach with technology (PT3) grants. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(4), 863–870. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.10.024

Rogers, L., & Twidle, J. (2013a). A pedagogical framework for developing innovative science teachers with ICT. Research in Science & Technological Education, 31(3), 227–251. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2013.833900

Rogers, L., & Twidle, J. (2013b). A pedagogical framework for developing innovative science teachers with ICT. Research in Science & Technological Education, 31(3), 227–251. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2013.833900

Unger, K. L., & Tracey, M. W. (2013). Examining the factors of a technology professional development intervention. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 25(3), 123–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-013-9070-x

Uslu, O. (2012). Effects of the professional development program on Turkish teachers: Technology integration along with attitude towards ict in education. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(3), 115–127.

Virkkunen, J. (2006). Dilemmas in building shared transformative agency. Activities, 3(1), 43–66. https://doi.org/10.4000/activites.1850

Virkkunen, J., & Newnham, D. S. (2013). The change laboratory : A tool for collaborative development of work and education. The Change Laboratory : A Tool for Collaborative Development of Work and Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-326-3

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society. Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/(Original manuscripts [ca. 1930-1934])

Wang, S.-K., Hsu, H.-Y., Reeves, T. C., Coster, D. C., & Longhurst, M. (2014). Professional development to enhance teachers’ practices in using information and communication technologies (ICTs) as cognitive tools: Lessons learned from a design-based research study. Computers & Education, 79, 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.07.006

How to Cite
Castro, W. (2018). A Change Laboratory professional development intervention to motivate university teachers to identify and overcome barriers to the integration of ICT. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies, 18(1). Retrieved from https://tidsskrift.dk/outlines/article/view/104698