Author Guidelines

Style guidelines

  • Articles must be submitted in Word-format (for Windows or Mac).
  • They should avoid jargon that will confuse the reader.
  • Articles should be about 5,000 to 6,000 words or about fifteen pages.
  • They should include a short abstract (100-200 words) and 5-10 keywords.
  • Articles must be typed double-spaced throughout. Quotations are also double-spaced.
  • Leave two white spaces above all headings and one below.
  • Use only one kind of type (font).
  • Use italics in titles of books, plays, newspapers, journals, periodicals etc.
  • Titles of articles are given in double quotation marks.
  • All quotations are given in the running text in double quotation marks.
  • Write all headings, titles and names of authors in ordinary type, using capitals only where they are necessary. Never use capitals throughout headings, titles or names.
    (In English, titles and headings use capitals for the first letter of every word, except for less important words, e.g. prepositions, articles etc.).
  • Use English (UK or Oxford) spelling for your own text, but give the original spelling for quotations (archaic, American …).
  • Write out in full “do not”, “will not”, etc.
  • Write -ize and -ization, in preference to -ise and -isation.
  • No full stop after Dr, Mr, Mrs, and similar abbreviations ending with the same letter as the full form. Other abbreviations take the full stop (p.m., etc.), except capitals used in abbreviations of journals (PMLA, NTS) or of organizations (UNESCO).
  • For dates use only the form 15 May 2005.
  • Write centuries in full. Hyphenate only the adjectival use: “seventeenth-century drama”, but “the theatre in the seventeenth century”.
  • Use minimal numerals: 1882-92, 141-2; but 13-15; 111-19.
  • Write “ninety-nine spectators”, but “101 fans”.
  • “Act Three, scene 5, lines 35-51” becomes after a quotation: (III,v:35-51). For volume, or part, use roman numerals: I, II …


  • All references shall be included in footnotes and not inserted into the running text.
  • Use the automatic footnote-numbering system in the Word program.
  • Use short format source notes in the footnotes: author’s surname (no comma) year of publication, page number. (Järvinen 2011, 78.)
  • Write a separate bibliography (works cited) using the following guidelines.

A Book

Surname, First Name(s). PUBLICATION YEAR. Title: Subtitle. Possible translator. Possible name of publication series and number.  Place of publication: Publisher.

Short format note: Surname PUBLICATION YEAR, page.

Example: Kirkkopelto, Esa. 2008. Le Théâtre de l ́expérience. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Paris-Sorbonne.

Kirkkopelto 2008, 20.

Article or Chapter in a Book

Surname, First Name(s). PUBLICATION YEAR. "Title of article: Subtitle." Possible translator. Editor with first name first & possibly second editor (ed.). Title of collection: subtitle. Possible name of publication series and number. Place of publication: Publisher, pages.

Short format note: Surname PUBLICATION YEAR, page.

Example: Pasanen-Willberg, Riitta. 2007. “Totentanz — A Strange Dance in Life: The Inspiration for an Artist's Work.” Translated by Jill Miller. In Leena Rouhiainen (ed.). Ways of Knowing in Dance and Art. Acta Scenica 19. Helsinki: Theatre Academy, 11–40.

Pasanen-Willberg 2007, 24.

Journal Article

Surname, First Name(s). PUBLICATION YEAR. "Title of article: Subtitle." Name of journal volume:issue, pages.

Short format note: Surname PUBLICATION YEAR, page.

Example: Järvinen, Hanna. 2011. ”Failed Impressions: Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in America, 1916.” Dance Research Journal 42:2, 77–108.

Järvinen 2011, 78.

Newspaper or Magazine Article

Surname, First Name(s). PUBLICATION YEAR. "Title of story." Name of magazine or newspaper DATE OF PUBLICATION, part:page.

Short note: Surname Magazine PUBLICATION DATE OR ISSUE AND YEAR.

Example: Turpeinen, Isto. 2011. ”Tanssinopetuksen poikakoodi.” Tanssi 1/2011, 29.

Turpeinen Tanssi 1/2011.


Official name of the archive, CITY AND POSSIBLY STATE Collection used DATE/ARCHIVE PLACE MARK

Archive of the Finnish National Theatre (FNT), Helsinki

Elli Tompuri's letters to the Board of the Finnish National Theatre 1.10.1921, 30.1.1929, 2.4.1935.

Minutes of the Board of Board of the Finnish National Theatre 1921–1935.

Short note: This depends on the use and type of material, usually the author(s) or type/description that is/are particular to this source DATE, possible place mark, name or acronym of archive.

Example 1: Tompuri's letter to the Board of FNT 30.1.1929.

Example 2: Minutes of the Board of FNT 27.4.1923.

Unpublished Dissertations and Theses

Example: Kivinen, Sari. 2011. “Spin-Fold-Spill : a textual investigation about role- play, narrative, and fictitious truths”. MA thesis in Performance Art and Theory, The Theatre Academy, Helsinki.

Kivinen 2011, 26–28.

Conference Papers

If referencing an unpublished conference paper, it is polite to ask permission from the author to cite it and to request a text or recording of the conference paper and only to use one's own notes if such an original is unavailable and if permission is given by the author. A conference paper is referenced like a book or an article, but with the publisher's information replaced with information about the conference.

Short note: Surname YEAR.


Elo, Julius. 2011. ”Reciprocal Interaction Between a Performer and Spectator.” Colloquium on Artistic Research in Performing Arts, Theatre Academy, Helsinki, 14.1.2011.

Elo 2011.

Workshops, Lecture Series, etc.

Example: Michael Klien & Steve Valk. 2011. "Helsinki Workshop on Social Choreography.” Theatre Academy, Helsinki, 26–29.4.2011.

Klien & Valk 27.4.2011.

Interviews and Collected Reminiscences, Email

Short note: Name of interviewee, DATE OF INTERVIEW.


Tiina Suhonen email interviews 11.2.2008 and 2.8.2010. Interviewed by Seppo Kumpulainen. The private archive of Seppo Kumpulainen.

Suhonen 2.8.2011.

Theatre, Dance or Performance

The title of the performance. Name of group and/or author(s) such as director and/or choreographer, set and costume designer(s), light and sound designer(s), and principal performers. DATE OF PERFORMANCE, Place of performance, City or location and possibly state.

Short note: Title. DATE.


Golem-muunnelmia. Toisissa tiloissa -group. Performers: Esa Kirkkopelto, Lauri Kontula, Janne Martinkauppi, Heli Meklin, Iive Meltaus, Piia Peltola, Jaakko Ruuska, Paula Tella, Miikka Tuominen, Taneli Tuominen. Lights: Janne Björklöf. Premiere 6.2.2011, Kiasma-teatteri, Helsinki.

Golem-muunnelmia 13.2.2011.

Photograph or Art Work

Author. PUBLICATION YEAR. Title of work. Collection or source information of a book, webpage or equivalent.

Short note: Title of work PUBLICATION YEAR.


Veronica Ringbom. 2000. Vattenbarnen. Dry point. The State Art Collection.

Vattenbarnen 2000.

Documentary, Feature or Short Film

Title of Work. Director. Screenwriter. Camera. Broadcaster. Year

Short note: Title of work PUBLICATION YEAR, minutes.

Example: Hélène S. Director: Leena Vihtonen, Script: Marina Motaleff, Camera: Kari Salminen. Actors: Soli Labbart, Marina Motaleff, Hellen Willberg, Sofia Wegelius, Liisi Tandefelt, Ville Sandqvist, Henrika Andersson, Ragni Grönblom, Annika Miiros, Nicke Lignell, Robert Jägerhorn, Kjell Rasmussen. YLE 2004.

Hélène S. 2004, 12:00.

Radio or Television Programme

Title of series or programme EPISODE NUMBER: Title of episode. Production company, PERFORMANCE CHANNEL TRANSMISSION DATE.

Short note: Title of series or programme EPISODE NUMBER, minutes (optional).


 Kootut askeleet. 7/20: Kirsi Monni. Grape Productions, YLE Teema 28.4.2009.

Kootut askeleet 7/20, 1:15–1:20.

Audio Recording

Short note: Title of recording PUBLICATION DATE, minutes (optional).


Weill, Kurt (comp.) & Brecht, Bertold (lyr.) 1990. Happy end: erste musikalische Gesamtaufnahme. Königsdorf: Delta Music. Pro Musica Vocal Ensemble, König Ensemble, Musical dir.: Jan Latham-Koenig. Principal performers: Walter Raffeiner, Steven Kimbrough, Karin Ploog, Gabriele Ramm.

Happy end 1990.

Musical and Dance Notation

Short note: Author(s) or Title of the work PUBLICATION YEAR, page or [bar].


Weill, Kurt (comp.) & Brecht, Bertold (lyr.) 1980. Happy end: Komödie mit Musik in drei Akten. Universal Edition, Wien.

Weill & Brecht 1980, 9. Happy end 1980, [25].

Internet Materials

Author (or institution, if available). YEAR (if dated). "Title of the piece being referenced." Name of the webpage and its type. Permalink or url (access date).

Short note: subject to reference

Example 1:

 Arlander, Annette. 2011. ”Avoimet ovet ja myllerretty maasto — Open Doors and Uprooted Terrain.” Katajan kanssa blog. http://aa- (20.10.2011).

Arlander 2011.

Example 2:

”Avoimet ovet ja myllerretty maasto — Open Doors and Uprooted Terrain.” Katajan kanssa blog, 18.9.2011. (20.10.2011).

Katajan kanssa blog 18.9.2011.

Common Terms and Abbreviations

e.g. = exempli gratia, for example

  1. = confer, compare with

ibid. = ibidem, as before (exactly the same as the previous note)

op.cit. = opus citatum, in the source mentioned above (but, for example, on a different page)

pass. = passim, here and there (when something is discussed over a hundred-odd pages but not consistently so — nonetheless, it is recommended you include page numbers)

s.a. = sine anno, without date (when either the publication or the printing date is not mentioned in your source)

s.l. = sine loco, without location (when there is no place of publication or printing mentioned in your source)

s.n. = sine nominem, without the name of the author — more or less the same as anon.

anon. = anonymous, published without the name of the author

pseud. = pseudonymous, published under a pen name