Fra kritikken af himlen til kritikken af jorden – bidrag til rekonstruktionen af Marx’ ufærdige kritik af politisk teologi
Keywords:Karl Marx, G. W. F. Hegel, state, sovereignty, political theology
FROM THE CRITIQUE OF THE HEAVENS TO THE CRITIQUE OF THE EARTH - A CONTRIBUTIONTO THE RECONSTRUCTION OF KARL MARX'S UNFINISHED CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL THEOLOGY
This article presents a reconstruction of Marx’s unfinished 1843 critique of political theology. In the preparatory notebooks for Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Marx identified Hegel’s political philosophy as an expression of “political theology,” which was to be the subject of his projected critique. However, he never completed nor published the manuscript. This article presents a detailed analysis of the manuscript and its intellectual context in order to reconstruct this incomplete critique of political theology, conceived as the conception of the state as a sovereign subject that transcends and determines society from without that remains predominant in contemporary political thought. The distinctly (post-)Hegelian conceptual resources of Marx’s critique allowed him to overcome the contradiction between state and society issuing from this political theological conception of the state without resorting to abstract negation as most prior critiques have done. Marx instead proceeds to show that it is the social significance of this political theology and the associated practices that constitute the earthly existence of the modern state within civil society as a whole.