Sårbarhedens overvindelse og styrkens fascination:

Den psykologiske og psykoterapeutiske resiliensforståelses idéhistorie

  • Anders Dræby Sørensen
Nøgleord: mental resilience, psychology, psychotherapy, culture of vulnerability, psychopolitics of strength


The first part of the article demonstrates how the concept of mental resilience has developed from the 1970s to the 2010s, spreading from the field of developmental psychopathology to a wide range of psychological and psychotherapeutic disciplines. Today, there are many varied definitions of mental resilience, ranging from a relation to the concept of mental vulnerability to a related concept of mental strength. The second part of the article demonstrates how the current popularisation of the idea of individual resilience is associated with a social and cultural problematisation of the vulnerable life as well as with a psychopolitical and governmental focus on enhancing the mental capacity of citizens.


American Psychiatric Association (2013). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
Anthony, E. (1974). Introduction: The syndrome of the psychologically vulnerable child. I E. Anthony & C. Koupernik (red.), The child in his family: Children at Psychiatric Risk: III. Wiley: New York
Bak, P. (2016). Robusthed. Aarhus: Klim
Bannik, F. (2014). Positive CBT: From Reducing Distress to Building Success. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 44 (1), 1-8
Beck, U. (2002). Risikosamfundet. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Blazer, D. (2005). The Age of Melancholy: “Major Depression” and its Social Origin. New York: Taylor & Francis
Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and egoresiliency in the organization of behavior. I W. Collins (red.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Vol. 13. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Bonanno, G. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20-8.
Dumont, M. & Provost, M. (1999). Resilience in Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 28 (3), 343-363
Evans, B. & Reid, J. (2014). Resilient Life: The Art of Living Dangerously. Cambridge: Polity Press
Foucault, M. (2005). Sindssygdom og psykologi. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Foucault, M. (2008a). Brugen af nydelserne. Seksualitetens historie 2. København: Det lille Forlag
Foucault, M. (2008b). Sikkerhed, territorium, befolkning. Forelæsninger på Collège de France, 1977-1978. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Foucault, M. (2009). Biopolitikkens fødsel. Forelæsninger på Collège de France, 1978-1979. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Frederickson, B. (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226
Freud, S. (2001). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Vintage
Furedi, F. (2003). Therapy Culture: Cultivating Vulnerability in an Uncertain Age. London: Routledge
Garbarino, J. (2011). The Positive Psychology of Personal Transformation: Leveraging Resilience for Life Change. New York: Springer
Garmezy, N. (1971) Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101-116.
Garmezy, N. (1974). The study of competence in children at risk for severe psychopathology. I E. Anthony & C. Koupernik (red.), The child in his family: Children at Psychiatric risk: III. New York: Wiley
Garmezy N. & Streitman, S. (1974). Children at risk: The search for the antecedents of schizophrenia: Conceptual models and research methods. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 14–90
Giddens, A. (2002). Modernitet og selvidentitet - selvet og samfundet under senmoderniteten. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Han, B-C. (2014). Psychopolitik: Neoliberalismus und die neuen Machttechniken. Frankfurt a.M.: Fischer Verlag
Hougaard, E. (2005). Angst og kultur. In A. D. Sørensen & H-J. Thomsen (red.), Det svære liv. Om lidelsen i den moderne kultur. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press
Jackson, M. (2013). The Age of Stress. Science and the Search for Stability. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Joseph, J. (2013). Resilience as embedded neoliberalism. A governmentality approach. Resilience, 1(1), 38-52
Liem, J. m.fl. (1997). Assessing resilience in adults with histories of childhood sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(4), 594–606
Linder, A. & Ledertoug, M. (2014). Livsduelighed og børns karakterstyrke. København: Dansk Psykologisk Forlag
Luthar, S., Cicchetti, D. & Becker, B. (2000). The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work. Child Development, 71(3), 543–562
Luthar S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. I D. Cicchetti (red.), Developmental Psychopathology: Volume 3. Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation. New York: Wiley
Maddux, J. & Winstead, B. (2008). Psychopathology. Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding. London: Routledge
Major, B. m.fl. (1998). Personal resilience, cognitive appraisals, and coping: An integrative model of adjustment to abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 735-752
Martinus (2011). Livets bog 1. København: Martinus Institut
Masten, A., Best, K. & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444
Masten, A. & Wright, M. (2010). Resilience over the lifespan: developmental perspectives on resistance, recovery, and transformation. I J. Reich m.fl. (red.), Handbook of Adult Resilience. New York: Guilford Press.
Masten, A. & Tellegen, A. (2012). Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the Project Competence Longitudinal Study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 345–361
McAslan, A. (2010). The Concept of Resilience. Adelaide, Australien: Torrens Resilience Institute
McFalls, L. & Pandolfi, M. (2014). Parrhesia and Therapeusis. Foucault on and in the world of contemporary neoliberalism. I J. Faubion (red.), Foucault now. Current Perspectives in Foucault Studies. Cambridge: Polity Press
Noble, T. & McGrath, H. (2013). Well-being and resilience in education. I I. Boniwell m.fl. (Reds.), Oxford Handbook of Happiness. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oestrich, I. (2008). Livskundskab og modstandskraft. København: Dansk Psykologisk Forlag
Padesky, C. & Mooney, K. (2012). Strengths-based cognitive-behavioural therapy: a four-step model to build resilience. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(4), 283-90.
Pedersen, O. (2011). Konkurrencestaten. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Pick, D. (2012). The Pursuit of the Nazi Mind. Hitler, Hess, and the Analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Platon (1999). Staten. København: Museum Tusculanums Forlag
Richters J., & Weintraub, S. (1990). Beyond diathesis: Toward an understanding of high-risk environments. I J. Rolf m.fl. (red.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press
Rose, N. (1999). Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London: Free Association Books
Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology: An Introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5–14
Smith, R. (2013). Between Mind and Nature. A History of Psychology. London: Reaktion Books
Sommer, D. (2005). Barndomspsykologi. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Sommer, D. (2011). Resiliens. Forskning – begreber – modeller. Psyke & Logos, 32, 372-394
Strümpfer, D. (1999). Psychosocial resilience in adults. Studia Psychologica, 41(2), 89-104
Sørensen, A. D. (2015). Angst – når hverdagslivet bliver hjemløst. I I. Bo & M. & Jacobsen (red.), Hverdagslivets følelser. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Thorup, M. (2013). Sårbarheder - globalisering, militarisering og terrorisering fra Murens fald til i dag. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press
Totton, N. (2006). The Politics of Psychotherapy. UK: Open University Press
Væver, M., Lunn, S., & Harder, S. (2010). Udviklingspsykopatologi. Psyke & Logos, 31, 393-398
Wampold, B. (2009). The Great Psychotherapy Debate. Models, Methods and Findings. Abingdon: Routledge
Werner, E. m.fl. (1971). The children of Kauai Honolulu. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press
Willig, R. (2013). Kritikkens u-vending. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag
Sørensen, A. (2018). Sårbarhedens overvindelse og styrkens fascination:. Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie, (73), 45-63. Hentet fra https://tidsskrift.dk/slagmark/article/view/107228