Fake trailers as imaginary paratexts
In recent years, trailers have undergone several changes due to the fact that they are now distributed online. The new possibilities in digital production and distribution have also led to the rise of new remix formats that parody and challenge trailer conventions. This article engages with the audiovisual aesthetics of so-called fake trailers in order to deliberate on their paradoxical promotional status. In terms of their audiovisual aesthetics, it is shown how such trailer remixes are driven equally much by the creative (mis)use of sound/music as by rearranging pre-existing shots visually. In terms of their promotional status, it is argued that even though fake trailers have most commonly been seen as proof of an increase in media literacy or as a means for ridiculing trailer conventions, they are nonetheless also firmly entangled in the promotional culture they allegedly aim to denounce. This is exemplified through an examination of the trailer parody "How To Make A Blockbuster Movie Trailer” (2017) made by the remix-duo Auralnauts.
Adorno, T. (1990). On popular music. In S. Frith, & A. Goodwin (Eds.), On Record: Rock, pop, and the written word (pp. 256-267). New York: Routledge, 1990. (Original work published 1941).
Andrejevic, M. (2008). Watching television without pity: Th e productivity of online fans. Television & New Media, 9(1), 24-46. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1177/1527476407307241.
Bird, S.E. (2011). Are We All Produsers Now? Cultural Studies, 25(4-5), 502-516. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from http://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2011.600532.
Bourriaud, N. (2002). Postproduction. New York: Lucas & Sternberg.
Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From production to produsage. New York: Peter Lang.
Brøvig-Hanssen, R., & Harkins, P. (2012). Contextual incongruity and musical congruity: The aesthetics and humour of mash-ups. Popular Music, 31(1), 87-104. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1017/S026114301100047X.
Burns, P. (2007). Freak Unique: My autobiography. London: John Blake Publishing.
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-Vision: Sound on screen (C. Gorbman, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Chion, M. (2009). Film: A sound art (C. Gorbman, & C. J. Deloglu, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Chion, M. (2012). 100 concepts pour penser et décrire le cinéma sonore. (Accessible as a free download if you provide an email address via http://michelchion.com/texts. Also features a translation by Claudia Gorbman under the title 100 Concepts to Think and Describe Sound Cinema.)
Chion, M. (2013). The audio-logo-visual and the sound of languages in recent film. In J. Richardson, C. Gorbman, & C. Vernallis (Eds.), Th e Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics (pp. 77-88). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199733866.013.0029.
Chion, M. (2017). Sound: An acoulogical treatise (J.A. Steintrager, Trans.). Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
Deaville, J. (2017). Trailer or leader? Th e role of music and sound in cinematic previews. In M. Mera, R. Sadoff , & B. Winters (Eds.), Th e Routledge Companion to Screen Music and Sound (pp. 240-254). New York: Routledge. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315681047-20.
Dusi, N.M. (2015). Remixing movies and trailers before and after the digital age. In E. Navas, O. Gallagher, & x. burrough (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies (pp. 154-165). New York: Routledge.
Elsaesser, T. (2001). The blockbuster: Everything connects, but not everything goes. In J. Lewis (Ed.), The End of Cinema as We Know It: American film in the nineties (pp. 11-22). New York: NYU Press.
Fear, D. (2013, October 28). Becoming attractions: A brief history of film trailers. The Dissolve. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from http://thedissolve.com/features/exposition/241-becoming-attractions-a-brief-history-offilm-trail/.
Gorbman, C. (1980). Narrative film music. Yale French Studies, (60), 183-203. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.2307/2930011.
Gray, J. (2010). Show Sold Separately: Promos, spoilers, and other media paratexts. New York: NYU Press.
Greene, A. (2011, October 10). Peter Gabriel: Story that Bruce Springsteen was inspiration for ‘Solsbury Hill’ is ‘hogwash’. Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://www.rollingstone.com/music/musicnews/peter-gabriel-story-that-bruce-springsteen-was-inspiration-for-solsbury-hill-is-hogwash-72349/.
Grøn, R. (2014). Literary experience and the book trailer as intermedial paratext. SoundEffects, 4(1), 90-107. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.7146/se.v4i1.20330.
Gunkel, D.J. (2008). Rethinking the digital remix: Mash-ups and the metaphysics of sound recording. Popular Music and Society, 31(4), 489-510. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1080/03007760802053211.
Hamel, K.J. (2012). From advertisement to entertainment: Early Hollywood film trailers. Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 29(3), 268-278. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1080/10509201003667218.
Hartwig, L. (2012). You’ll never see this on the silver screen: The film trailer as a template for the appropriation and transformation of Hollywood movies. In K. Loock, & C. Verevis (Eds.), Film Remakes, Adaptations and Fan Productions (pp. 215-230). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137263353.0019.
Hediger, V. (2001). Verführung zum Film. Der amerikanische Kinotrailer seit 1912. Marburg: Schüren.
Hesford, D. (2013). Action… suspense… emotion! The trailer as cinematic performance. Frames Cinema Journal, (3), unpaginated. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from http://framescinemajournal.com/article/actionsuspense-emotion-the-trailer-as-cinematic-performance/.
Hesmondhalgh, D. (2010). User-generated content, free labour and the cultural industries. Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization, 10(3/4), 267-284. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from http://www.ephemerajournal.
Hills, M. (2019). Transmedia paratexts: Informational, commercial, diegetic, and auratic circulatin. In M. Freeman, & R. Rampazza Gambarato (Eds.), Th e Routledge Companion to Transmedia Studies (pp. 289-296). New York: Routledge. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351054904-32.
Hutcheon, L. (1985). A Theory of Parody: The teachings of twentieth-century art forms. New York: Methuen.
Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television fans and participatory culture. New York: Routledge.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Jenkins, H. (2018, June 27). Popular culture as politics, politics as popular culture. Keynote at the NECS Conference, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Jenkins, H. (2019). Popular culture as politics, politics as popular culture. Th e Journal of Media Literacy. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://www.journalofmedialiteracy.org/jenkins-article-2019.
Jensen, C.S. (2014). Reduced narration, intensified emotion: The film trailer. Projections, 8(1), 105-125. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.3167/proj.2014.080107.
Johnston, K. (2008). Th e coolest way to watch movie trailers: Trailers in the digital age. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14(2), 145-160. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354856507087946.
Johnston, K. (2009). Coming Soon: Film trailers and the selling of Hollywood technology. London: McFarland and Co.
Johnston, K., Vollans, E., & Greene, F. (2016). Watching the trailer: Researching the film trailer audience. Participations: Journal of Audience & Reception Studies, 13(2), 56-85. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://www.participations.org/Volume%2013/Issue%202/5.pdf.
Kernan, L. (2004). Coming Attractions: Reading American movie trailers. Austin: University of Texas Press.
King, N. (2004). Th e last good time we ever had. In T. Elsaesser, A. Horwath, & N. King (Eds.), The Last Great American Picture Show (pp. 19-36). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048503681-002.
Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. London: Bloomsbury.
McLeod, K. (2005). Confessions of an intellectual (property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and my long and winding path as a copyright activist-academic. Popular Music and Society, 28(1), 79-93. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1080/0300776042000300981.
Mera, M. (2009). Invention/re-invention. Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 3(1), 1-20. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.3828/msmi.3.1.1.
Middleton, J. (2007). Th e audio-vision of found footage fi lm and video. In R. Beebe, & J. Middleton (Eds.), Medium Cool: Music videos from soundies to cellphones (pp. 59-82). Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822390206-004.
Ortega, V.R. (2014). Spoof trailers, hyperlinked spectators & the web. New Media & Society, 16(1), 149-164. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1461444813479000.
Richardson, J. (2012). An Eye for Music: Popular music and the audiovisual surreal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schatz, T. (1993). Th e new Hollywood. In J. Collins, H. Radner, & A.P. Collins (Eds.), Film Theory Goes to the Movies (pp. 8-36). New York: Routledge.
Serazio, M. (2008). The apolitical irony of generation mash-up: A cultural case study in popular music. Popular Music and Society, 31(1), 79-94. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1080/03007760701214815.
Shifman, L. (2014). Memes in Digital Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Shoemaker, A. (2018, August 27). Oh shit, there’s 3 seconds of new Game of Thrones footage. The AV Club. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://news.avclub.com/oh-shit-there-s-three-seconds-of-new-game-ofthrones-fo-1828626205.
Tryon, C. (2009). Reinventing Cinema: Movies in the age of media convergence. London: Rutgers University Press.
Williams, K.A. (2012). Fake and fan fi lm trailers as incarnations of audience anticipation and desire. Transformative Works and Cultures, 9, unpaginated. Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2012.0360.
Williams, K.A. (2014). Th e Recut Trailer as Networked Object: Anticipation and nostalgia in the YouTube era. [PhD dissertation, School of the Arts and Media, UNSW, Australia].
Williams, K.A. (2016). Extended attractions: Recut trailers, film promotion, and audience desire. In A.A. Klein, & R.B. Palmer (Eds.), Cycles, Sequels, Spin-Off s, Remakes, and Reboots: Multiplicities in film and television (pp. 260-276). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Wyatt, J. (1994). High Concept: Movies and marketing in Hollywood. Austin: University of Texas Press.
“Britney Spears – ‘Hold It Against Me’ Teaser #1” (2011). Uploaded by Britney Spears on February 4, 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leRlViWiynU.
“How To Make A Blockbuster Movie Trailer” (2017). Uploaded by Auralnauts on August 14, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAOdjqyG37A.
“Machete Trailer [HQ]” (2010). Uploaded by cristoph258 on June 30, 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzoeBdEjOFI.
“Monty Python and the Holy Grail Modern Trailer” (2013). Uploaded by Stéphane Bouley on September 10, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKNDml12Big.
“Shining HQ” (2012). HQ remake of Robert Ryang’s original The Shining fake trailer. Uploaded by TheLateGrahamChapman on September 8, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6s40Q6ODSI8.
“The action-movie style trailer Trump says he played to Kim Jong-un” (2018). Uploaded by Guardian News on June 12, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYsaC2CADs0.
“The Dark Side of Oz” (2013). Uploaded by Rolf Renton on March 21, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtExVJlgEC0.
“THE ORIGINAL Scary ‘Mary Poppins’ Recut Trailer” (2006). Uploaded by moviemker on October 9, 2006. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2T5_0AGdFic.
“Trailer For Every Oscar-Winning Movie Ever” (2010). Uploaded by Cracked on March 6, 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbhrz1-4hN4.
“What If ‘Jaws’ Was A Disney Movie?” (2011). Uploaded by Italianoboy UK on December 8, 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dr1pFnJj6H0.
“You’ve Got Mail Recut” (2006). Uploaded by jdfi lms on December 15, 2006. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2debV8fkLhc.
Burns, P., Coy, S., Hussey, W., Lever, T. & Lever, M. (as Dead or Alive), “You Spin Me Round (Like a Record)”. On You Spin Me Round (Like a Record) [single]. Los Angeles: Epic Records.
Articles submitted to MedieKultur should not be submitted to or published in other journals. Articles published in MedieKultur may be used (downloaded) and reused (distributed, copied, cited) for non-commercial purposes with reference to the authors and publication host.
The authors and MedieKultur own the copyright to the published articles and reviews.