#walkouton77: football fan activism in Premier League
This article provides an analysis and a discussion of a protest over ticket prices among fans of the English football club, Liverpool FC. The protest was organized with the hashtag #walkouton77 and combined social media activity with a massive walkout during a globally televised football match. I explore the #walkouton77 protest from two perspectives: Firstly, how fan-activity transformed a franchised TV football match into a transmedia event. Secondly, how fan activism combines cultural and political dimensions as well as offline and online dimensions. It is suggested that football fan activism holds distinguished fan activism potentials demonstrated by the #walkouton77 movement influencing the LFC owners’ club-as-commodity discourses by promoting a club-as-culture discourse. It is concluded the football fans are able to function as collective cultural critics thereby obtaining a position as co-authors of the club as a cultural institution.
Bacallao-Pino, L.M. (2016). Transmedia events: Media Coverage of Global Transactional Repertoires of Colllective Action. In: B. Mitu & S. Poulakidakos (Eds.), Media Events - A Critical Contemporary Approach (pp. 189-206). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Bennett, W. L. & Segerberg, A. (2012). The logic of connective action. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 739-768. DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.
boyd, d. (2014). It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens. Yale: Yale University Press.
Brough, M. & Shresthova, S. (2012). Fandom meets activism: rethinking civic and political participation. Transformative Works and Cultures, Vol. 10. DOI: 10.3983/twc.2012.0303.
Bruns, A. (2007). Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation. In: Creativity and Cognition: Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity & Cognition, ACM, Washington, DC.
Bruns, A., Weller, K. & Harington, S. (2014). Twitter and Sports: Football Fandom in Emerging and Established Markets. In: K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess, M. Marht & C. Puschmann (Eds.). Twitter and Society (pp. 263-280). New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Brügger, N. (2016). An outline of a typology of media events and their impact on web archiving: Dayan & Katz revisited. Presentation: 29 Nov 2016 - De #jesuischarlie à #offenturen. Institut des sciences de la communication (CNRS/Paris-Sorbonne/UPMC) - Paris Castells https://f-origin.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/3178/files/2016/11/Niels-Br%C3%BCggers-presentation-ilovepdf-compressed.pdf (accessed on 15.06.18).
Carragher, A. (2017). Lost? Liverpool FC and English football at the crossroads. Leicestershire: Matador.
Castells, M. (2015). Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age (2nd edition). Cambridge: Polity Press.
Cui, X. & Rothenbuhler, E.W. (2016). Ritual. In: K.B. Jensen and R.T. Craig (editors). The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Dahlberg-Grundberg, M., Lundström, R. & Lindgren, S. (2016). Social media and the transnationalization of mass activism: Twitter and the labour movement. First Monday 21(8)
Davis, L. (2015). Football fandom and authenticity: a critical discussion of historical and contemporary perspectives, Soccer & Society, 16(2-3), 422-436. DOI:10.1080/14660970.2014.961381.
Dayan, D. (2010). Beyond media events: Disenchantment, derailment, disruption. In: N. Couldry, A. Hepp & F. Krotz (Eds.) Media events in a global age (pp. 23-31). London: Routledge.
Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1992). Media events: The live broadcasting of history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Evans, D. & Norcliffe, G. (2016). Local identities in a global game: the social production of football space in Liverpool, Journal of Sport & Tourism 20(3-4), 217-232, DOI: 10.1080/14775085.2016.1231621.
Fiske, J. (1987). Television Culture. London: Routledge.
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research, Qualitative Inquiry 12(2), 219-245, DOI: 10.1177/1077800405284363.
Forbes (2018). Amazon Prime Wins Live Premier League TV Rights As Tech Giants Finally Get Involved. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevemccaskill/2018/06/07/amazon-prime-wins-live-premier-league-tv-rights-as-tech-giants-finally-get-involved/ (accessed on 15.06.18).
Gantz, W. & Lewis, N. (2014). Fanship Differences between Traditional and Newer Media. In: A.C. Billings & M. Hardin (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport and New Media (pp. 19-31). London: Routledge.
Genette, G. (1987/1997). Paratexts. Thresholds of Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Giulianotti, R. (2002). Supporters, followers, fans and flâneurs: A taxonomy of spectator identities in world football. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26(1): 25–46. DOI: 10.1177/0193723502261003.
Hepp, A. & Couldry, N. (2010). Introduction: media events in globalized media cultures. In: N. Couldry, A. Hepp & F. Krotz (Eds.) Media events in a global age (pp. 1-20). London: Routledge.
Highfield, T. (2017). Social media and everyday politics, re-examined https://medium.com/dmrc-at-large/social-media-and-everyday-politics-re-examined-5fdbe159b5fd (accessed 06.06.18).
Hill, T., Canniford, R. & Millward, P. (2016). Against modern football: Mobilising protest movements in social media. Sociology, August 2016. DOI: 10.1177/0038038516660040.
Hodges, G. (2018). Fan Activism, Protest and Politics: Ultras in Post-Socialist Croatia. New York: Routledge.
Horton, D. & Wohl, R. (1956). Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction: Observations on Intimacy at a Distance. Psychiatry 19, 215-29.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York/London: New York University Press.
Jenkins (2007). Transmedia Storytelling 101, http://henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html (accessed 06.06.18).
Johansen, S.L. (2016). Fodboldleg som tekst: Børns tekster i et brugsperspektiv. Passage, 75, 115-127.
Katz, E. & Liebes, T. (2007). No more peace!’: How disaster, terror and war have upstaged media events. International Journal of Communication, 1(1), 10.
King, A. (1997). New Directors, Customers, and Fans: The Transformation of English Football in the 1990s. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 224-240.
Kristensen, N.N. & From, U. (2015). From Ivory Tower to Cross-Media Personas: The heterogeneous cultural critic in the media. Journalism Practice, 9(6). DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2015.1051370.
Kuhn, G. (2011). Soccer Vs. The State. Oakland: PM Press.
Liverpool FC (2016a). LFC announces new 16-17 ticket structure - £9 ticket and free tickets for schools. Retrieved from http://www.liverpoolfc.com/news/announcements/205690-lfc-announces-new-16-17-ticket-structure-9-ticket-and-free-tickets-for-schools (accessed on 07.06.18).
Liverpool FC (2016b). FSG's message to Liverpool supporters. Retrieved from https://www.liverpoolfc.com/news/announcements/206821-fsg-s-message-to-liverpool-supporters (accessed on 07.06.18).
Livingstone, S. (Ed.). Audiences and Publics: When cultural engagement matters for the public sphere. Changing Media, Changing Europe Volume 2. Bristol: Intellect Books.
Marwick, A. og boyd, d. (2011). To see and be seen: Celebrity practice on Twitter. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 17(2), 139-158. DOI: 10.1177/1354856510394539.
Millward, P. (2012). Reclaiming the Kop? Analyzing Liverpool supporter’s 21st C. mobilizations. Sociology 46(4), 633-648.
Papacharissi, Z. (2015). Affective publics and structures of storytelling: sentiment, events and mediality. Information, Communication & Society, DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2015.1109697.
Rowe, D. (2011). Global Media Sport: Flows, Forms and Futures. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Scannell, P. (2014). Television and the meaning of live. Polity Press: Cambridge and Malden, MA.
Scott, S. (2012). Who’s Steering the Mothership?: The Role of the Fanboy Auteur in Transmedia Storytelling. In: Aaron Delwiche and Jennifer Henderson (eds.). The Participatory Cultures Handbook. New York: Routledge, 2012. 43-52.
Sondaal, T. (2013). Football’s grobalization or globalization? The lessons of Liverpool Football Club’s evolution in the Premier League era, Soccer & Society 14(4), 485-501, DOI: 10.1080/14660970.2013.810432.
Spirit of Shankly (2016). “Ticket working group conclusion – Statement”. Retrieved from http://www.spiritofshankly.com/news/ticket-working-group-statement-conclusion (accessed on 07.06.18).
The Guardian (2011). The Premier League has priced out fans, young and old. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/sport/david-conn-inside-sport-blog/2011/aug/16/premier-league-football-ticket-prices (accessed on 07.06.18).
The Telegraph (2016). Ticket price scandal: English football should hang its head in shame. Retrived from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/football/2016/02/16/ticket-price-scandal-english-football-should-hang-its-head-in-sh/ (accessed on 07.06.18).
This is Anfield (2016). Enough is enough, and it’s not just about Liverpool – View from the Kop of Anfield protest. Retrieved from https://www.thisisanfield.com/2016/02/enough-is-enough-and-its-not-just-about-liverpool-view-from-the-kop-of-anfield-protest/ (accessed on 07.06.18).
Tufekci, Z. (2017). Twitter and Tear Gas. The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest. Yale University Press.
Verboord, M. (2014). The impact of peer-produced criticism on cultural evaluation: A multilevel analysis of discourse employment in online and offline film reviews. New Media & Society, Vol 16 (6), 921 – 940. DOI: 10.1177/1461444813495164.
Waade A. M. & Toft-Nielsen, C. (2015). Harry Potter som transmedia storytelling – franchise, fantasy og fans. In: P. S. Lauridsen & E. Svendsen (Eds.). Medieanalyse (pp. 60-82). Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.
Williams, R.  2011. Culture is Ordinary. In I. Szeman & T. Kaposy (Eds.), Cultural Theory: An Anthology (pp. 53-59). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Articles submitted to MedieKultur should not be submitted to or published in other journals. Articles published in MedieKultur may be used (downloaded) and reused (distributed, copied, cited) for non-commercial purposes with reference to the authors and publication host.
The authors and MedieKultur own the copyright to the published articles and reviews.