Integration of a Disability Lens as Prerequisite for Inclusive Higher Education




Disability, Higher Education, Disablism, Ableism, Pedagogy


PURPOSE. Occidental higher education often approaches disability as a disparate issue, failing to recognize that it is part of human diversity. Such an approach hinders inclusive education because it overlooks how disability is intertwined with other identities and concepts of exclusion. The overarching aim of this paper is to enhance understanding of (intersecting) disabling processes within education policy and practice and the impact thereof on students; and to raise educators’ awareness about how integration of knowledge from Disability Studies within pedagogy and their daily interaction with students, can positively influence disabled students’ wellbeing, their study opportunities and aid the overall process of inclusion.

APPROACH. This paper offers a disability lens by (1) presenting a literature overview from a Disability Studies (DS) perspective about disability and exclusionary phenomena, in particular disablism and ableism; (2) substantiating how a current focus on accessibility hinders actual inclusion; (3) analysing a case-study through the presented perspective with attention to Dutch contextual factors. For the case-study, the first author and ‘Tess’ engaged in regular conversations during a year in which Tess shared her experiences as a student of higher education. In this paper, a selection of these experiences is presented from a reflexive perspective and with application of the presented frameworks. With this, the complex impact of exclusionary processes on interactions between students, educators and on the organization of university involved (social) events is illustrated.

FINDINGS. The lack of nuanced, fluid and intersectional approaches to disability within mainstream education hinders the recognition of (epistemic) injustices. Exclusionary processes and practices in higher education remain unacknowledged, although they negatively impact disabled students and block their epistemic contribution. Moreover, the continued focus on accessibility hinders implementation of the international convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and deflects attention from the fact that inclusive education requires systemic change and a multi-layered approach.

KEY MESSAGE. The current trajectory of disability inclusion is counterproductive without true systemic change. Integration of the presented disability lens is imperative for truly intersectional approaches to inclusion and offers educators a way to positively influence students’ wellbeing and identity development, even when policy changes are not yet achieved.



Points of interest:
  • Knowledge and attitudes about disability in higher education systems, in policies and practice, often do not portray disability from the perspective of disabled people themselves. There is also a lack of understanding how disability is part of human diversity and is intertwined with other identity aspects.
  • Because higher education often focusses on including disabled people in existing systems by way of individual accommodations rather than on changing the design of the system, disabled students experience various forms of exclusion, varying from opportunities to study to the way they are approached by educators, that effect their wellbeing.
  • The usefulness of disability studies theory is illustrated by applying them to the experiences of ‘Tess’, demonstrating how her personal and professional life was influenced by them.
  • We argue that policies need to change and that educators themselves can work on true inclusion by recognising disability as diversity and by integrating up-to-date knowledge from the perspective of disabled people themselves in their approaches.

Author Biographies

Paul Van Trigt, Leiden University, the Netherlands

Assistant Professor Social History, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Alice Schippers, University of Humanistic Studies Utrecht, the Netherlands; Disability Studies in the Netherlands, Almere, the Netherlands

Professor of Disability Studies (by special appointment), department of Care Ethics, University of Humanistic Studies Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Director Disability Studies in the Netherlands (



Altman, B. M. (2001). Definitions, models, classifications, schemes, and applications. In G. L. Albrecht, K. Steelman, & M. Bury (Eds.), Handbook of disability studies (pp. 97–122). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Annamma, S. A., Ferri, B. A., & Connor, D. J. (2018). Disability critical race theory: Exploring the intersectional lineage, emergence, and potential futures of DisCrit in education. Review of Research in Education, 42(1), 46–71.

Baart, I., & Maier, R. (2016). Disability studies. Successen en dilemma’s [Disability studies. Successes and dillemmas]. In G. Van Hove, A. Schippers, & E. De Schauwer (Eds.), Disability studies in de lage landen [Disability studies in the Low lands] (pp. 12–31). Garant Uitgevers nv.

Baker, B. (2002). The hunt for disability: The new eugenics and the normalization of school children. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 663–703.

Barker, C., & Murray, S. (2013). Disabling postcolonialism: Global disability cultures and democratic criticism. In L. J. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (4th ed., pp. 61–73). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Barnes, C. (2001, October 24). ‘Emancipatory’ disability research: Project or process? [Public Lecture]. Glasgow, Scotland.

Baynton, D. (2001). Disability and the justification of inequality in American history. In P. K. Longmore & L. Umansky (Eds.), The New disability history. American perspectives (pp. 33–57). New York University Press.

Ben-Moshe, L., & Magaña, S. (2014). An introduction to race, gender, and disability: Intersectionality, disability studies, and families of color. Women, Gender, and Families of Color, 2(2), 105–114.

Ben-Moshe, L., Nocella, A. I. I., & Withers, A. J. (2012). Queer-cripping anarchism: Intersections and reflections on anarchism, queerness and dis-ability. In C. B. Daring, J. Rogue, D. Shannon, & A. Volcano (Eds.), Queering anarchism: Addressing and undressing power and desire (pp. 207–220). AK Press (Oakland, Edinburgh, Baltimore).

Biesta, G. (2020a). Perfect education, but not for everyone: On society’s need for inequality and the rise of surrogate education. Zeitschrift Für Pädagogik, 66(1), 8–14.

Biesta, G. (2020b). Risking ourselves in education: Qualification, socialization, and subjectification revisited. Educational Theory, 70(1), 89–104.

Biesta, G. J. J., & Stengel, B. S. (2016). Thinking philosophically about teaching. In D. H. Gittomer & C. A. Bell (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching. (5th ed., pp. 7–68). AERA.

Bogart, K. R., Rottenstein, A., Lund, E. M., & Bouchard, L. (2017). Who self-identifies as disabled? An examination of impairment and contextual predictors. Rehabilitation Psychology, 62(4), 553–562.

Brants, L., van Trigt, P., & Schippers, A. (2018). A short history of approaches to disability in the Netherlands. In R. Hanes, I. Brown, & N. E. Hansen (Eds.), The Routledge history of isability (pp. 151–162). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Bunbury, S. (2020). Disability in higher education—Do reasonable adjustments contribute to an inclusive curriculum? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24(9), 964–979.

Büscher-Touwen, M., de Groot, M. D., & van Hal, L. V. (2018). Mind the gap between higher education and the labour market for students with a disability in the Netherlands: A research agenda. Social Inclusion, 6(4), 149–157.

Campbell, F. A. K. (2008a). Exploring internalized ableism using critical race theory. Disability and Society, 23(2), 151–162.

Campbell, F. K. (2008b). Refusing able(ness): A preliminary conversation about ableism. M/C Journal, 11(3).

Campbell, F. K. (2009). Contours of ableism: Territories, objects, disability and desire. Palgrave Macmillan.

Campbell, F. K. (2012). Stalking ableism: Using disability to expose ‘abled’ narcissism. In D. Goodley, B. Hughes, & L. Davis (Eds.), Disability and social theory: New developments and directions (pp. 212–230). Palgrave Macmillan.

Campbell, F. K. (2017). Queer anti-sociality and disability unbecoming: An ableist relations project? In O. Sircar & D. Jain (Eds.), New intimacies, old desires: Law, culture and queer politics in neoliberal times (pp. 280–316). Zubaan Books.

Campbell, F. K. (2019). Precision ableism: A ‘studies in ableism’ approach to developing histories of disability and abledment. Rethinking History, 23(2), 138–156.

Campbell, F. K. (2020, February 1). Introducing studies in ableism ( SiA ) [Workshop presentation]. The Women’s Liberation 2020 Conference, London, UK.

Campbell, F. K. (2021). Indian contributions to thinking about studies in ableism: Challenges, dangers and possibilities. Indian Journal of Critical Disability Studies, 1(1), 22–40.

Carette, L., De Schauwer, E., & Van Hove, G. (2018). ‘Everywhere we go, people seem to know:’ Mad students and knowledge construction of mental illness in higher education. Social Inclusion, 6(4), 207–217.

Catala, A. (2020). Metaepistemic injustice and intellectual disability: A pluralist account of epistemic agency. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 23(5), 755–776.

Collins, K., Connor, D., Ferri, B., Gallagher, D., & Samson, J. (2016). Dangerous assumptions and unspoken limitations: A disability studies in education. Response to Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, Mattison, Maczuga, Li, and Cook (2015). Multiple voices for ethnically diverse exceptional learners, 16(1), 4–16.

Connor, D. J. (2014). Social justice in education for students with disabilities. In L. Florian (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of special education: Two volume set (2nd ed., pp. 111–128). SAGE Publications Ltd.

CRPD-Committee. (2016). General comment No. 4 on the right to inclusive education [CRPD/C/GC/4].

Cummings, S., Regeer, B., de Haan, L., Zweekhorst, M., & Bunders, J. (2018). Critical discourse analysis of perspectives on knowledge and the knowledge society within the sustainable development goals. Development Policy Review, 36(6), 727–742.

Daniels, J. N. (2020). Exploring the psychological and emotional impact of ableism in education and motherhood a tale of two parts. [Doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield]. White Rose eTheses Online.

Davis, L. J. (2013). The end of identity politics: On disability as an unstable category. In L. J. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (4th ed., pp. 263–277). Routledge.

Dirth, T. P., & Adams, G. A. (2019). Decolonial theory and disability studies: On the modernity/coloniality of ability. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(1), 260–289.

Dohmen, J. (2016). ‘A little of her language:’ Epistemic injustice and mental disability. Res Philosophica, 93(4), 669–691.

Dolmage, J. T. (2017). Academic ableism: Disability and higher education. University of Michigan Press.

Dunhamn, J., Harris, J., Jarrett, S., Moore, L., Nishida, A., Price, M., Robinson, B., & Schalk, S. (2015). Developing and reflecting on a black disability studies pedagogy: Work from the National black disability coalition. Disability Studies Quarterly, 35(2).

ECIO. (n.d.). Veelgestelde vragen [Frequently asked questions]. Hoger onderwijs toegankelijk [Higher education acessible]. Retrieved December 8, 2023 from

ECIO. (2020). Financieel slim studeren met een beperking [Financially smart studying]. [Fact sheet]. ECIO.

ECIO. (2021). Intentieverklaring VN—verdrag voor inclusiever onderwijs [Declaration of intentions CRPD for more inclusive education].

ECIO. (2023). Wettelijke kaders voor toegankelijk onderwijs [Legal frameworks for accessible education]. Retrieved December 8, 2023 from hebben een wettelijke verplichting,digitale producten en online systemen.

Evans, H. D. (2019). ‘Trial by fire:’ Forms of impairment disclosure and implications for disability identity. Disability and Society, 34(5), 726–746.

Francis, G. L., Duke, J. M., Fujita, M., & Sutton, J. C. (2019). ‘It’s a constant fight:’ Experiences of college students with disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 32(3), 247–262.

French, S., & Swain, J. (2004). Whose tragedy? Towards a personal non-tragedy view of disability. In J. Swain, S. French, B. Barnes, & C. Thomas (Eds.), Disabling barriers—Enabling environments (2nd ed., pp. 34–40).

Goodley, D. (2017). Dis/entangling critical disability studies. In A. Waldschmidt, H. Berressem, & M. Ingwersen (Eds.), Culture—Theory—Disability. Encounters between disability studies and cultural studies. (pp. 81–110). Transcript Verlag.

Goodley, D. (2018). The dis/ability complex. Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies, 5(1), 5–22.

Goodley, D., Lawthom, R., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2014). Dis/ability and austerity: Beyond work and slow death. Disability and Society, 29(6), 980–984.

Goodley, D., Liddiard, K., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2018). Feeling disability: Theories of affect and critical disability studies. Disability and Society, 33(2), 197–217.

Goodley, D., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2012). Decolonizing methodology: Disabled children as research managers and participant ethnographers. In A. Azzopardi & S. Grech (Eds.), Inclusive communities (pp. 215–232). SensePublishers.

Goodley, D., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2016). Becoming dishuman: Thinking about the human through dis/ability. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(1), 1–15.

Goudsmit, C. A. (2016). Uitbreiding WGBH/CZ met goederen en diensten [Expansion WGBH/CZ with products and services]. Handicap & Recht, 0(1), 3–8.

Government of the Netherlands. (2023). Non-discriminatiegronden Grondwet uitgebreid met handicap en seksuele gerichtheid [Non-discrimination grounds Constitution expanded with disability and sexual orientation].

Grech, S. (2015). Decolonising Eurocentric disability studies: Why colonialism matters in the disability and global South debate. Social Identities, 21(1), 6–21.

Grue, J. (2011). Discourse analysis and disability: Some topics and issues. Discourse and Society, 22(5), 532–546.

Grue, J. (2016). The social meaning of disability: A reflection on categorisation, stigma and identity. Sociology of Health & Illness, 38(6), 957–964.

Hamilton, P. R., Hulme, J. A., & Harrison, E. D. (2023). Experiences of higher education for students with chronic illnesses. Disability and Society, 38(1), 21–46.

Harrington, L. (2019). Black women’s knowing, unruliness and the radical transformation of inclusive postsecondary educational spaces. Educational Studies - AESA, 55(4), 387–404.

Hilberink, S. R., Van Hillo-Visser, B., & Cardol, M. (2018, August 14). Flexibel examineren in het hoger onderwijs [Flexible examinations in higher education]. Kenniscentrum Toetsen En Examineren; Hogeschool Rotterdam [Knowledge-centre tests and examination; Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences].

Hollinsworth, D. (2013). Decolonizing Indigenous disability in Australia. Disability and Society, 28(5), 601–615.

Hoppe, S., Schippers, A., & Kool, J. (2011). Disability studies in Nederland. Verbinding in de context [Disability studies in the Netherlands. Connection within the context] (pp. 1–56). Disability Studies in Nederland [Disability studies in the Netherlands].

Indar, G. K. (2018). An equity-based evolution of universal design for learning: Participatory design for intentional inclusivity. The Universal Design for Learning Implementation and Research Network.

Iqtadar, S., Hernández-Saca, D. I., Ellison, B. S., & Cowley, D. M. (2021). Global conversations: Recovery and detection of Global South multiply-marginalized bodies. Race Ethnicity and Education, 24(5), 719–736.

Jain, N. R. (2020). Frameworks for inclusion: Toward a transformative approach. In L. Meeks & L. Neal-Boylan (Eds.), Disability as diversity (pp. 1–13).

Järkestig Berggren, U., Rowan, D., Bergbäck, E., & Blomberg, B. (2016). Disabled students’ experiences of higher education in Sweden, the Czech Republic, and the United States—A comparative institutional analysis. Disability and Society, 31(3), 339–356.

Kamenopoulou, L., Karisa, A., Unit, E., & Population, A. (2023). Editorial: Inclusive education in the Global South: Can we turn promises into actions? Disability and the Global South, 10(1), 2181–2188.

Kelly, J., Mckenzie, J., Watermeyer, B., Vergunst, R., Karisa, A., & Samuels, C. (2022). ‘We need to go back to our schools, and we need to make that change we wish to see:’ Empowering teachers for disability inclusion. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 00(00), 1–17.

KNMG. (2018). Why is your own GP not authorised to issue a medical certificate? Royal Dutch Medical Association.

Lane, L. (2017). ‘Am I being heard?’ The ‘voice of’ students with disability in higher education: A literature review. Högskolepedagogisk skriftserie.

Langørgen, E., & Magnus, E. (2018). ‘We are just ordinary people working hard to reach our goals!’ Disabled students’ participation in Norwegian higher education. Disability and Society, 33(4), 598–617.

Linton, S. (1998). Claiming disability. Knowledge and identity. New York University Press.

Lipka, O., Sarid, M., Aharoni Zorach, I., Bufman, A., Hagag, A. A., & Peretz, H. (2020). Adjustment to higher education: A comparison of students with and without disabilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 923.

Loutzenheiser, L. W., & Erevelles, N. (2019). ‘What’s disability got to do with it?:’ Crippin’ educational studies at the intersections. Educational Studies - AESA, 55(4), 375–386.

Marshak, L., Van Wieren, T., Ferrell, D. R., Swiss, L., & Dugan, C. (2010). Exploring barriers to college student use of disability services and accommodations. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 22(3), 151–165.

Matthews, N. (2009). Teaching the ‘invisible’ disabled students in the classroom: Disclosure, inclusion and the social model of disability. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(3), 229–239.

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science [EC&S]. (2019). Strategisch Agenda hoger onderwijs en onderzoek: Houdbaar voor de toekomst [Strategic agenda higher education and research: Sustaainable for the future].

Mollow, A. (2017). Unvictimizable: Toward a fat black disability studies. In African American Review, 50(2), 105–121.

Morris, J. (1991). Pride against prejudice. Transforming attitudes to disability. The Women’s Press.

Nguyen, X. T. (2018). Critical disability studies at the edge of global development: Why do we need to engage with Southern theory? Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 7(1).

Nieminen, J. H. (2023). Unveiling ableism and disablism in assessment: A critical analysis of disabled students’ experiences of assessment and assessment accommodations. Higher Education, 85(3), 613–636.

Oliver, M. (1990, July 23) The individual and social models of disability [Paper presentation]. Joint workshop of the living options group and the research unit of the Royal College of Physicians.

Oliver, M. (1992). Changing the social relations of research production? Disability, Handicap and Society, 7(2), 101–115.

Oliver, M. (1997). Emancipatory research: Realistic goal or impossible dream? In G. M. Leeds (Ed.), Doing disability research (pp. 15–31). The Disability Press.

Oliver, M. (2013). The social model of disability: Thirty years on. Disability and Society, 28(7), 1024–1026.

Oomen, B. (2018). Fragmentation/integration of human rights law-a users’ perspective on the CRPD. In E. Brems & S. Ouald-Chaib (Eds.), Fragmentation and integration in human rights law: Users’ perspectives (pp. 86–110). Edward Elgar Publishin.

Osborne, T. (2019). Not lazy, not faking: Teaching and learning experiences of university students with disabilities. Disability and Society, 34(2), 228–252.

Podlucká, D. (2020). Transformative anti-ableist pedagogy for social justice: Charting a critical agenda for inclusive education. Outlines : Critical Practice Studies, 21(1), 69–97.

Pollaert, E., Van der Meulen, E., & Sutantapreeda, A. (2021). Essentieel of Extra? De inbedding van het VN-verdrag Handicap en het sociaal model van handicap in Nederlandse hbo-curricula [Essential or extra? The embedment of the CRPD and the social model of disability in curricula of Dutch universities of applied sciences]. Alliantie VN-verdag handicap.

Rath, V. (2022). Social engagement: Hearing the experiences of disabled students in higher education in Ireland. Frontiers in Education, 7, Article 895392.

Reeve, D. (2002). Negotiating psycho-emotional dimensions of disability and their influence on identity constructions. Disability and Society, 17(5), 493–508.

Reeve, D. (2006). Towards a psychology of disability: The emotional effects of living in a disabling society. In D. Goodley & R. Lawthom (Eds.), Disability and psychology: Critical introductions and reflections (pp. 94–107). Palgrave.

Reeve, D. (2012a). Psycho-emotional disablism: The missing link? In N. Watson, A. Roulstone, & C. Thomas (Eds.), Routledge handbook of disabilty studies (1st.ed., pp. 78–92). Routledge.

Reeve, D. (2012b). Psycho-emotional disablism in the lives of people experiencing mental distress. In J. Anderson, B. Sapey, & H. Spandler (Eds.), Distress or disability? Proceedings of a symposium held at Lancaster Disability 15-16 November 2011, Lancaster: Centre for Disability Research, Lancaster University (pp. 24–29). Centre for Disability Research, Lancaster University.

Reeve, D. (2014). Psycho-emotional disablism and internalised oppression. In J. Swain, S. French, C. Barnes, & C. Thomas (Eds.), Disabling barriers—Enabling environments (3rd ed., pp. 92–98). Sage.

Reid, D. K., & Knight, M. G. (2006). Disability justifies exclusion of minority students: A critical history grounded in disability studies. Educational Researcher, 35(6), 18–23.

Ressa, T. (2021). Review of schooling of learners with disabilities and the manifestation of the hidden curriculum of time. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 11(1), 95–111.

Schoonheim, J. (2016). Waarom een tweesporenbeleid niet spoort met het recht op onderwijs [Why a two track policy does not track with the right to education]. Handicap & Recht [Disablity & Right], 1, 9–15.

Schoonheim, J., & Smits, J. (2019). Schaduwrapportage Verdrag inzake de rechten van personen met een handicap in Nederland [Shadow report CRPD in the Netherlands]. Alliantie VN-verdrag handicap [Alliance CRPD].

Silverman, D. (2017). How was it for you? The Interview Society and the irresistible rise of the (poorly analyzed) interview. Qualitative Research, 17(2), 144–158.

Smeets, E. (2007). Speciaal of apart. Onderzoek naar de omvang van het speciaal onderwijs in Nederland en andere Europese landen [Special or separate. Research into the extent of special education in the Netherlands and other European countries]. ITS.

Smeets, E., Driessen, G., Elfering, S., & Hovius, M. (2009). Allochtone leerlingen en speciale onderwijsvoorzieningen [Immigrant learners and special education provisions]. ITS.

Spaan, N., & Rosalina, K. (2021). Inclusie in het onderwijs: Werken aan een inclusieve leeromgeving voor alle studenten [Inclusion in education: Working on an inclusive learning environment for all students]. In J. Van der Stel, A. Ribbert, & M. De Ruijter (Eds.), Hoe leren studenten in het hoger beroepsonderwijs? [Canon—How do students learn in higher vocational education] (pp. 204–209).

Stichting het gehandicapte kind [Foundation the disabled child]. (n.d.). Jayden | Het Gehandicapte Kind. Retrieved January 10, 2022 from

Taylor, A. (2015). Making disability (matter) in philosophy of education. Philosophy of Education, 71, 224–232.

Taylor, A., & Shallish, L. (2019). The logic of bio-meritocracy in the promotion of higher education equity. Disability and Society, 34(7–8), 1200–1223.

The Netherlands Institute for Human Rights [NIfHR]. (2020). Het recht op onderwijs in het VN-verdrag Handicap: Verdiepend Advies. [The right to education in the CRPD: In depth advice].

The Netherlands Institute for Human Rights [NIfHR]. (2022). Inzicht in inclusie III: Participatie van mensen met een beperking op het gebied van zelfstandig leven in de maatschappij, onderwijs en werk [Insight in inclusion III: Participation of people with an impairment in the area of living independently in society, education and work].

Thomas, C. (2008). Disability: Getting it ‘right.’ Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(1), 15–17.

Thomas, C. (2012). Theorising disability and chronic illness: Where next for perspectives in medical sociology? Social Theory & Health, 10, 209–228.

Tobin, T. J., & Behling, K. (2018). Reach everyone, teach everyone: Universal design for learning in higher education. West Virginia University Press.

Tremain, S. L. (2001). On the government of disability. Social Theory and Practice, 27(4), 617–636.

Tremain, S. L. (2018). Philosophy and the aparatus of disability. In A. Cureton & D. T. Wasserman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of philosophy and disability (pp. 82–99). Oxford University Press.

UNESCO. (2015). Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and framework for action for the implementation of sustainable development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all [Programme and meeting document].

UNESCO. (2020). Global education monitoring report 2020: Inclusion and education: All means all.

UNESCO. (2021). Reimagining our futures together: A new social contract for education. UNESCO.

United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Treaty Series, 2515, 3.

Van Hove, G., De Schauwer, E., De Munck, K., Cnockaert, R., Claus, S., Schippers, A., & Lievens, S. (2014). Disclosure and the double bind processes of students with disabilities in institutions for higher education: Disability studies going from studying processes of ‘Disablism’ to the study of wider processes of ‘Ableism.’ DiGeSt. Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies, 1(1), 21–32.

Van Hove, G., Cardol, M., Schippers, A., De Schauwer, E., & Cardol, M. (2016). Situering [Situating/lay out]. In G. Van Hove, A. Schippers, E. De Schauwer, & M. Cardol (Eds.), Disability studies in de Lage Landen [Disability studies in the Low Lands] (pp. 7–11). Garant Uitgevers nv.

Van Trigt, P. (2019). Gelijkheid zonder beperking: Over de Algemene Wet Gelijke Behandeling (1994) en de constructie van handicap in politieke instituties [Equality without limitations: About the general law of equal treatment (1994) and the construction of disability in political institutions]. BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review, 134(1), 3–27.

Van Veen, E. (2021). De implementatie van het VN- verdrag Handicap in het Nederlands hoger onderwijs. Wat is er al bereikt en hoe kan het hoger onderwijs nog inclusiever worden? [The implementation of the CRPD in Dutch higher education. What has been accomplished and how can higher education become even more inclusive?].

Van Veen, E., Van Doorn, E., & Van de Wijdeven, F. (2021). De impact van vijf jaar VN-verdrag handicap in het hoger onderwijs: Inspiratie voor een inclusieve onderwijsaanpak [The Impact of five years CRPD in higher education: Inspiration for an inclusive education approach].

Van Yperen, T., Donker, A., & Deen, C. (2020). Trends in gebruik speciale onderwijsvoorzieningen [Trends in the use of special education provisions]. In A. Pleijers, M. Souren, R. De Vries, & L. Fernandez Beiro (Eds.), Jaarrapport Landelijke Jeugdmonitor 2020 [Year report national youth monitor 2020] (pp. 124–131). CBS.

Watermeyer, B., & Swartz, L. (2016). Disablism, identity and self: Discrimination as a traumatic assault on subjectivity. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 26(3), 268–276.

Wechuli, Y. (2022). Between cripping and reclaiming: Epistemological implications of Disability Studies’ feeling strategies. Emotions and Society, 4(2), 142–160.

Wendell, S. (2001). Unhealthy disabled: Treating chronic illnesses as disabilities. Hypatia, 16(4), 17–33.

Wolbring, G. (2008). The politics of ableism. In Development, 51(2), 252–258.



2024-02-01 — Updated on 2024-02-03