Urban Reforms and the Birth of City Planning in Rio de Janeiro and Recife (1904-1945)

  • Dr. Joes Outtes
Keywords: Urban reforms, modernization, Latin American citites, Brazilian cities, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, social exclusion, urban social segregation, slums, slum settlements

Abstract

This paper discusses urban reforms and the birth of city planning in Rio de Janeiro and Recife between the years 1904 and 1945. It deals with financial changes, political struggles, housing crises and the birth of city planning itself. The paper concludes that these urban reforms brought another image of the city, a new townscape and a different experience of living. These developments were characterised by proto-modern architecture, skyscrapers built on large avenues, distant housing with long journeys to work for the poorest, or overcrowded favelas (slum setlements) around the city centre.

References

1 HARVEY, David, The Urbanization of Capital: Studies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985, pp. 163-164.
2 HARVEY, David, "Between space and time: reflections on the geographical imagination", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80, 1990, 418-434, pp. 418.
3 HARVEY, David, "Paris 1850-1870", in Conciousness and the Urban Experience: Studies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985, pp. 82.
4 For further information about Haussmann’s reform see CARS, Jean de & PINON, Pierre, Paris/Haussmann: "Le Paris d'Haussmann", Paris, Editions du Pavillon de
l’Arsenal-Picard Editeur, 1991, and MAHOUT, Christian & MONCAN, Patrice. Le Paris du Baron Haussmann: Paris sous le Second Empire, Paris, Editions SEESAM-RCI,1991.
5 BENCHIMOL, Jaime Larry, Pereira Passos: um Haussmann Tropical; as transformações urbanas do Rio de Janeiro no inicio do século XX, Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/UFRJ M. Phil. Thesis, unpublished, 1982.
6 ABREU, Mauricio de Almeida, Evolução Urbana do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2nd ed., IPLANRIO/ Jorge Zahar Editor, 1988.
7 ROLNIK, Raquel, Cada um no seu lugar! São Paulo, inicio da industrialização: geografia do poder, São Paulo, FAU/USP M. Phil. Thesis, unpublished, 1981.
8 LUBAMBO, Catia Wanderley, Bairro do Recife: do Corpo Santo ao Marco Zero, Recife, Ed. Massangana, 1991.
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10 Melo, Marcus André Barreto Campelo de (1990): “O Estado, o boom do século e a crise da habitação: Rio de Janeiro e Recife (1937-1946)”, in Gomes, Marco Aurélio Filgueiras & Fernandes, Ana Maria (Eds.) (1992): Cidade & História: modernização das cidades Brasileiras nos séculos XIX e XX, Salvador: Centro Editorial da Universidade Federal da Bahia, pp. 147-158. I developed the involvement of the IAPS with the reform of Recife in detail in Outtes, Joel (1997): O Recife: a gênese do urbanismo (1927-1943), Recife: Massangana.
11 For those political movements see TOTA, Antonio Pedro, O Estado Novo, São Paulo, Brasiliense, 1987; TRONCA, Italo Arnaldo, Revolução de 1930: a dominação oculta, São Paulo, Brasiliense, 1985; DECCA, Edgard Salvadori de, 1930, O Silêncio dos Vencidos, São Paulo, Brasiliense, 1981 and OLIVEIRA, Lucia Lippi; VELLOSO, Mônica Pimenta & GOMES, Ana Maria de Castro (Eds.). Estado Novo, Ideologia e Poder, Rio de Janeiro, Zahar, 1982.
12 OUTTES, Joel. "'O Corpo de um Heroi Esquartejado': a reforma urbana do bairro de Santo Antônio em Recife no Estado Novo", paper presented at the Seminario de Historia Urbana, Salvador, 1990, also in GOMES, M. & FERNANDES, A., op. cit.
13 For a housing crisis in London, see JONES, Gareth Stedman. Outcast London: a study on the relationship between classes in Victorian Society, London, Pantheon books, 3 ed., 1984, pp. 215-230.
14 Old bourgeois house, insalubrious and overcrowded, that is shared among many families, each one living in a part of it.
15 OUTTES, Joel. "A Desconstrução do Recife Colonial (1927-1945)", paper presented at the IV Encontro Nacional da ANPUR (Associação Nacional de Pos-Graduação e Pesquisa em Planejamento Urbano e Regional), Salvador, 1991.
16 MELO, M. A. B., op. cit.
17 Idem.
18 For the Musée Social see ELWITT, Sanford. "Social Reform and Social Order in Late Nineteenth-Century France: the Musée Social and its friends", French Historical Studies, 11, Spring 1980, pp. 431-451.
19 AGHTM. Exposition de la Cité Reconstituée; Esthétique et Hygiene, Paris, Imprimerie Centrale de la Bourse, 1917, pp. 73.
20 For an analysis of the composition and activities of this board see OSTI, Giovanna. "La section d'hygiène urbaine et rurale du Musée Social", in BURLEN, Katherine (Ed.). La banlieu oasis. Henri Sellier et les cités-jardins, Saint Denis, Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1987, pp. 59-66.
21 For the contents of these lectures see the first part of AGACHE, Donalt-Alfred. Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, extensão, remodelação e embellezamento, Paris, Foyer Brésilien, 1930.
22 For the trip of Agache in Recife see OUTTES, J. "Un chapitre inconnu de la vie de l'urbaniste Agache", forthcoming.
23 LEME, M. Cristina da Silva. ReVisão do Plano de Avenidas: um estudo sobre o planejamento urbano em São Paulo, 1930, São Paulo, FAUUSP PhD Thesis, unpublished, 1990.
24 Corrêa Lima, Attilio (1932): “Avant projet d’aménagement et extension de la ville de ‘Niterói’, capitale de l’Etat de Rio de Janeiro”, La Vie Urbaine, nouvelle série, 8: 97-127 & 9: 179-241 and Corrêa Lima, Attilio (1932): Avant-projet d'aménagement et d'extension de la ville de Niterói au Brésil, Paris: Fréal.
25 For Azevedo's opinion about Figueiredo's plan see AZEVEDO, Washington. Urbanismo no Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Casa Editora Henrique Velho, 1934.
26 For the birth of city planning in different countries see SUTCLIFFE, Anthony (Ed.). British Town Planning: the formative years, Leicester, Leicester University Press, 1981; SUTCLIFFE, A. Towards the Planned City: Germany, Britain, The United States and France, 1780-1914, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1981; TOPALOV, Christian. Naissance de l'Urbanisme Moderne et Reforme de l'Habitat Populaire aux Etats-Unis, 1900-1940, Paris, Centre de Sociologie Urbaine, 1988; GAUDIN, Jean-Pierre. l'Avenir en Plan: technique et politique dans la prévision urbaine, 1900-1930, Paris, Champ Vallon, 1985; CHERRY, Gordon. The Evolution of British Town Planning, Health an Reach, Leonard Hill books, 1974; OUTTES, Joel. O Recife Pregado à Cruz das Grandes Avenidas: contribuição à historia do urbanismo, Recife, MDU-UFPE M. Phil. Thesis, unpublished, 1991 and SCHAFFER, D. (Ed.). Two Centuries of American Planning, London, Mansell Publishing, 1988.
27 For social reform see WARD, David. "Social Reform, Social Survey and the Discovery of the Modern City", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80, 1990.
Published
2005-01-01
How to Cite
Outtes, D. J. (2005). Urban Reforms and the Birth of City Planning in Rio de Janeiro and Recife (1904-1945). Diálogos Latinoamericanos, 6(10), 10. Retrieved from https://tidsskrift.dk/dialogos/article/view/113656
Section
Articles