Talk and Embodied Conduct in Word Searches in Video-Mediated Interactions
Keywords:embodied practice, progressivity, video-mediated interaction, word search
This paper concerns ways L2 speakers utilize embodied practices when engaged in word searches in interactions via video-mediated interaction. Examining the role of embodiment in word search practices in semi-pedagogical conversations between native German speakers and German language learners, we demonstrate how interlocutors use the gesture of an upward extended index finger to manage extended word searches in the ongoing production of the turn. The gesture plus the request to wait (ein moment/”one moment”) are used to indicate that the turn is temporarily put on hold, during which the L2 speaker orients to the screen to complete the ongoing word search. In addition, our paper scrutinizes how L2 speakers’ embodied practices emerge in the context of video-mediated interaction.
Antaki, C. (2012). Affilative and disaffilative candidate understandings. Discourse Studies, 14(5), 531–547.
Arminen, I., Licoppe, C., & Spagnolli, A. (2016). Respecifying mediated interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 49(4), 290–309.
Barrow, J. (2010). Electronic dictionary look-up practices of novice English learners. In T. Greer (Ed.), Observing talk: Conversation analytic studies of second language interaction (pp. 55–72). Tokyo: Pragmatics Special Interest Group of JALT.
Brouwer, C. E. (2003). Word searches in NNS-NS interaction: Opportunities for language learning? Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 534–545.
Brouwer, C. E. (2004). Doing pronunciation: A specific type of repair sequence. In E. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language conversations (pp. 93–113). Continuum.
Egbert, M., Liebecker, L., & Rezzara, S. (2004). Inside first and second language speakers’ trouble in understanding. In R. Gardner & J. Wagner (Eds.), Second language conversations (pp. 178–200). Continuum.
Gan, Y., Greiffenhagen, C., & Licoppe, C. (2020). Orchestrated openings in video calls: Getting young left-behind children to greet their migrant parents. Journal of Pragmatics, 170, 364–380.
Golato, A. (2012). German oh: Marking an emotional change of state. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45(3), 245–268.
Goodwin, C. (1981). Exophoric reference as an interactive resource. In J. N. Deely & M. D. Lehnart (Eds.), Semiotics 1981 (pp.119–137). Plenum Press.
Goodwin, C. (1986). Gesture as a resource for the organization of mutual orientation. Semiotica, 62, 29–49.
Goodwin, C. (1989). Turn construction and conversational organization. In B. Dervin, l. Grossberg, B. O’Keefe, & E. Wartella (Eds.), Rethinking communication: Paradigm Exemplars (pp. 88–102). Sage Publications.
Goodwin, M. H., & Goodwin, C. (1986). Gesture and coparticipation in the activity of searching for a word. Semiotica, 62(1-2), 51–75.
Greer, T. (2013). Word search sequences in bilingual interaction: Codeswitching and embodied orientation toward shifting participant constellations. Journal of Pragmatic, 57, 100–117.
Greer, T. (2016). Multiple involvements in interactional repair: Using smartphones in peer culture to augment lingua franca English. In M. Theobald (Ed.), Friendship and peer culture in multilingual settings (pp. 197–229). Emerald.
Hayashi, M. (2003). Language and the body as resources for collaborative action: A study of word searches in Japanese conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 36(2), 109–141.
Heath, C. C., & Luff, P. (1993). Disembodied conduct: Interactional asymmetries in video-mediated communication. In G. Button (Ed.), Technology in working order: Studies of work, interaction, and technology (pp. 35–54). Routledge.
Heritage, J. (1988). Explanations as accounts: A conversation analytic perspective. In C. Antaki (Ed.), Analyzing everyday explanation: A casebook of methods (pp. 127–144). Sage Publications.
Heritage, J. (2012). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45(1), 1–29.
Heritage, J., & Sorjonen, M. L. (1994). Constituting and maintaining activities across sequences: And-prefacing as a feature of question design. Language in Society, 23, 1–29.
Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (1998). Conversation analysis: Principles, practices and applications. Polity Press.
Jefferson, G. (1972). Side sequences. In D. N. Sudnow (Ed.), Studies in social interaction (pp. 294–233). Free Press.
Kamunen, A., & Haddington, P. (2020). From monitoring to co-monitoring: Projecting and prompting activity transitions at the workplace. Gespächsforschung-Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion, 21, 82–122.
Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible action as utterance. Cambridge University Press
Kitzinger, C. (2012). Repair. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 229–256). Wiley.
Koshik, I., & Seo, M. S. (2012). Word (and other) search sequences initiated by language learners. Text & Talk, 32(2), 167–189.
Kozar, O. (2016). Teachers’ reaction to silence and teachers’ wait time in video and audioconferencing English lessons: Do webcams make a difference? System, 62, 53–62.
Kurhila, S. (2006). Second language interaction. John Benjamins.
Lazaraton, A. (2004). Gesture and speech in the vocabulary explanations of one ESL teacher: A microanalytic inquiry. Language Learning, 54(1), 79–117.
Lerner, G. H. (1996). Finding face in the preference structures of talk-in-interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59(4), 303–321.
Licoppe, C. (2017). Showing objects in Skype video-mediated conversations: From showing gestures to showing sequences. Journal of Pragmatics, 110, 63–82.
Luff, P., Heath, C., Kuzuoka, H., Hindmarsh, J., Yamazaki, K., & Oyama, S. (2003). Fractured ecologies: Creating environments for collaboration. Human-Computer Interaction, 18, 51–84.
Matsumoto, Y., & Canagarajah, S. (2020). The use of gesture, gesture hold, and gaze in trouble-in-talk among multilingual interlocutors in an English as a lingua franca context. Journal of Pragmatics, 169, 245–267.
Mlynář, J., González-Martínez, E., & Lalanne, D. (2018). Situated organization of video-mediated interaction: A review of ethnomethodological and conversation analytic studies. Interacting with Computers, 30(2), 73–84.
Mondada, L. (2007). Multimodal resources for turn-taking: Pointing and the emergence of possible next speakers. Discourse Studies, 9, 194– 225.
Mondada, L. (2016). Challenges of multimodality: Language and the body in social interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 20(2), 2–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.1_12177
Mondada, L. (2018). Multiple temporalities of language and body in interaction: Challenges for transcribing multimodality. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 51(1),85–106.
Mortensen, K. (2016). The body as a resource for other-initiation of repair: Cupping the hand behind the ear. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 49(1), 34–57.
Oloff, F. (2021). Some systematic aspects of self-initiated mobile device use in face-to-face encounters. Journal für Medieninguistik, 2(2), 195–235.
Pekarek Doehler, S., & Balaman, U. (2021). The routinization of grammar as a social action format: A longitudinal study of video-mediated interactions. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 54(2), 183–202.
Pekarek Doehler, S. & Berger, E. (2019). On the reflexive relation between developing L2 interactional competence and evolving social relationships: A longitudinal study of word-searches in the ‘wild’. In J. Hellermann, S. W. Eskildsen, S. Pekarek Doehler, & A. Piirainen-Marsh (Eds.), Conversation analytic research on L2 interaction in the wild: The complex ecology of learning-in-action (pp. 51–75). Springer.
Piirainen-Marsh, A., Lilja, N., & Eskildsen, S. W. (2022/this issue). Bodily Practices in Action Formation and Ascription in Multilingual Interaction: Introduction to the Special Issue. Social Interaction. Video-Based Studies of Human Sociality, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.7146/si.v5i2.130866
Reichert, T., & Liebscher, G. (2012). Positioning the expert: Word searches, expertise, and learning opportunities in peer interaction. The Modern Language Journal, 96(4), 599–609.
Rosenbaun, L., & Licoppe, C. (2017). Showing ‘digital’objects in web-based video chats as a collaborative achievement. Pragmatics, 27(3), 419–446.
Rydell, M. (2019). Negotiating co-participation: Embodied word searching sequences in paired L2 speaking tests. Journal of Pragmatics, 149, 60–77.
Sacks, H. (1987). On the preferences for agreement and contiguity in sequences in conversation. In G. Button & J. R. E. Lee (Eds.), Talk and social organization (pp. 54–69). Multilingual Matters.
Sacks, H. (1992). Lectures on conversation. Blackwell.
Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50, 696–735.
Schegloff, E. A. (1979). The relevance of repair to syntax-for-conversation. In T. Givon (Ed.), Discourse and syntax (pp. 261–286). Academic Press.
Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction. University Press.
Schegloff, E. A., Jefferson, G., & Sacks, H. (1977). The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language, 53(1–2), 361–382.
Seo, M. S., & Koshik, I. (2010). A conversation analytic study of gestures that engender repair in ESL conversational tutoring. Journal of Pragmatics, 8, 2219–2239.
Sert, O. (2017). Creating opportunities for L2 learning in a production activity. System, 70, 14–25.
Skogmyr Marian, K., & Pekarek Doehler, S. (2022/this issue). Multimodal Word-search Trajectories in L2 Interaction: The Use of Gesture and how it Changes over Time. Social Interaction. Video-Based Studies of Human Sociality, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.7146/si.v5i2.130867
Smotrova, T., & Lantolf, J. P. (2013). The function of gesture in lexically focused L2 instructional conversations. Modern Language Journal, 97(2), 397–416.
Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (2011). Knowledge, morality and affiliation in social interaction. In T. Stivers, L. Mondada, & J. Steensig (Eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation (pp. 3-24). Cambridge University Press.
Streeck, J. (1995). On projection. In E. Goody (Ed.), Social intelligence and interaction (pp. 87–110). Cambridge University Press.
Streeck, J. (2009). Gesturecraft. The manu-facture of meaning. John Benjamins.
Svennevig, J. (2018). What’s called in Norwegian?: Acquiring L2 vocabulary items in the workplace. Journal of Pragmatics, 126, 68–77.
Taleghani-Nikazm, C. (2008). Gestures in foreign language classroom: An empirical analysis of their organization and function. Selected Proceedings of the 2007 Second Language Research Forum, 229–238.
Theodórsdóttir, G. (2011). Language learning activities in everyday situations: Insisting on TCU completion in second language talk. In G. Pallotti & J. Wagner (Eds.), L2 learning as a social practice: Conversation-analytic perspectives (pp. 185–208). National Foreign Language Resource Center.
Tuncer, S., Lindwall, O., & Brown, B. (2020). Making time: Pausing to coordinate video interactions and practical tasks. Symbolic Interaction, 44(3), 603-631.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Author and Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
We follow the Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of Open Access.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.
The journal allows software/spiders to automatically crawl the journal content (also known as text mining)
The journal provides article level metadata to DOAJ
The journal allows readers to read, download, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose.