Gaze and the Organization of Participation in Collective Visual Conduct
Keywords:gaze, action formation, participation frameworks, group membership
In this article, we demonstrate how participants make use of others’ gazing actions to monitor and engage events in their surroundings. Specifically, we focus on a tension between one sort of gazing action that participants freely join in, “noticing”, and another, “watching”, that is subject to constraints related to participant identities toward a collective and their corresponding rights of membership that include toward what and with whom they may gaze. Employing the method of conversation analysis, we provide a fine-grained examination of differences between the two gazing actions that include movements of the head, body, eyes, and feet, and highlight how these differences provide a resource for differentially orienting to the environment and joining in visually based activities with others.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and theory of Mind. MIT Press.
Bavelas, J. B., Coates, L., & Johnson, T. (2002). Listener responses as a collaborative process: The role of gaze. Journal of Communication, 52(3), 566-580.
Butterworth, G., & Cochran, E. (1980). Towards a mechanism of joint visual attention in human infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 3(3), 253-272.
Carlin, A. (2014). Working the crowds: Street performances in public spaces. In Brabazon, T (Ed.) City Imaging: Regeneration, Renewal and Decay (pp. 157-169). Springer Netherlands.
Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., Tomasello, M., Butterworth, G., & Moore, C. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the society for research in child development, i-174.
Corkum, V., & Moore, C. (1998). The origins of joint visual attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 34(1), 28.
Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers visiospatial orienting by adults in a reflexive manner. Visual Cognition, 6, 509–540.
Friesen, C., & Kingstone, A. (1998). The eyes have it! Reflexive orienting is triggered by nonpredictive gaze. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 490–495.
Goffman, E. (1963). Behavior in Public Places. New York: The Free Press.
Goffman, E. (1977). Relations in public: Microstudies of the Public Order. New York: Basic Books.
Goodwin, C. (1979). The interactive construction of a sentence in natural conversation. In G. Psathas (Ed.) Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Irvington, 97-121.
Goodwin, C. (1980). Restarts, pauses, and the achievement of a state of mutual gaze at turn‐beginning. Sociological Inquiry, 50(3‐4), 272-302.
Goodwin, C. (1981). Conversational organization: Interaction between Speakers and Hearers. New York: Academic Press.
Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional Vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633
Goodwin, C. (2000). Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1489-1522.
Goodwin, C. (2003) The Semiotic Body in its Environment, in J. Coupland and R. Gwyn (Ed.) Discourses of the Body, pp. 19-42. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.
Gullberg, M., & Holmqvist, K. (1999). Keeping an eye on gestures: Visual perception of gestures in face-to-face communication. Pragmatics & Cognition, 7(1), 35-63.
Jefferson, G. (2004), Glossary of Transcript Symbols with an Introduction, in G. H. Lerner (Ed.) Conversation Analysis. Studies from the First Generation, pp. 13-31. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kendon, A. (1967). Some functions of gaze direction in social interaction. Acta Psychologica, 26, 22–63.
Kendon, A. (1990). Conducting interaction: Patterns of behavior in focused encounters (Vol. 7). Cambridge University Press.
Kendon, A. (2010). Spacing and orientation in co-present interaction. In (Eds.) Hussain, A, Vogel, C, Nijholt, A, Esposito, A, Campbell, N. Development of Multimodal Interfaces: Active Listening and Synchrony (pp. 1-15). Springer: Berlin Heidelberg.
Kidwell, M. (2009). Gaze shift as an interactional resource for very young children. Discourse Processes, 46(2-3), 145-160.
Kidwell, M., & Zimmerman, D. H. (2007). Joint attention as action. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(3), 592-611.
Langston, S., & Bruce, V. (1999). Reflexive social orienting. Visual Cognition, 6, 541–567.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. Psychology Press.
Mondada, L. (2019). Conventions for Multimodal Transcription, version 5.0.1. https://344cc026-c96f-49aa-b4bc-071b454d3061.filesusr.com/ugd/ba0dbb_986ddd4993a04a57acf20ea06e2b9a34.pdf
Pomerantz, A. (1984). Agreeing and Disagreeing with Assessments: Some Features of Preferred/Dispreferred Turn Shape. J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (Eds.) Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, pp. 57–101. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Psathas, G, (1990). The organisation of talk, gaze and activity in a medical interview. In G. Psathas (Ed.). Interaction Competence. Washington: University Press of America.
Ricciardeli, P., Bricolo, E., Salvatore, M., & Chelazzi, L. (2002). My eyes want to look where your eyes are looking: Exploring the tendency to imitate another individual’s gaze. NeuroReport, 13, 2259–2264.
Robinson, J. D. (1998). Getting down to business: Talk, gaze, and body orientation during openings of doctor-patient consultations. Human communication research, 25(1), 97-123.
Rossano, F. (2013). Gaze in Conversation. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds). The Handbook of Conversation Analysis (308-329). Thousand Oaks, CA: Blackwell.
Scaife, M., & Bruner, J. S. (1975). The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature, 253(5489), 265-266.
Schegloff, E. A. (1984). On some questions and ambiguities in conversation. JM Atkinson ve J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis (pp. 28-52).
Schegloff, E. A. (1998). Body torque. Social Research, 65(3), 535-596.
Sharrock, W. W., & Turner, R. (1980). Observation, esoteric knowledge, and automobiles. Human Studies, 3(1), 19-31.
Smith, T. E. (2017). Solving the payment problem: an interactional analysis of street performance. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. University of Edinburgh.
Stivers, T., & Rossano, F. (2010). Mobilizing response. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 43(1), 3-31.
Streeck, J. (1993). Gesture as communication I: Its coordination with gaze and speech. Communication Monographs, 60, 275–299.
Tomasello, M. (1999). The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Author and Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
We follow the Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of Open Access.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.
The journal allows software/spiders to automatically crawl the journal content (also known as text mining)
The journal provides article level metadata to DOAJ
The journal allows readers to read, download, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose.