Encouragement in videogame interactions


  • Heike Baldauf-Quilliatre
  • Isabel Colón de Carvajal




videogame interactions, instruction, encouragement, action ascription, multimodality


This paper explores how participants encourage each other in videogame interactions in private settings. It aims to contribute to a better understanding of encouragement as multimodal practice in videogame interaction. In the paper we focus especially on a comparison of encouragements and instructions and argue that they are used differently: encouragements show another sequence structure than instructions, occur in particular contexts and are characterized by a specific turn design. We consider two types of encouragements. First we analyze encouragements occurring after a display of demotivation and projecting indices of re-motivation of the co-participant. Then we show encouragements produced to incite the encouraged player to continue his ongoing gaming action. This type of encouragements occurs when the instructed action is already going on and it is characterized by lexical repetition and a particular rhythmicity. Our study draws on a corpus of 21h video recorded mostly multiplayer videogame interactions in French.


Arminen, I., Licoppe, C. & Spagnolli, A. (2016). Respecifying mediated interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction 49, 290-309.
Baldauf-Quilliatre, H. (2014a). Formate knapper Bewertungen beim Fußball-Spielen an der Playstation. In C. Schwarze, C. Konzett (Eds.). Interaktionsforschung: Gesprächsanalytische Fallstudien und Forschungspraxis (pp.107-130). Berlin: Frank & Timme.
Baldauf-Quilliatre, H. (2014b). Multiple Sayings: répétition et encouragement. Semen - Revue de sémio-linguistique des textes et discours 38, 115–135.
Baldauf-Quilliatre, H. & Colón de Carvajal, I. (2015). Is the avatar considered as a participant by the players? A conversational analysis of multi-player videogame interactions. PsychNology Journal 13(2-3), 127-148.
Baldauf-Quilliatre, H. & Colón de Carvajal, I. (2019). Interaktionen bei Videospiel-Sessions: Interagieren in einem hybriden Raum. In K. Marx, A. Schmidt (Eds.). Interaktion und Medien. Interaktionsanalytische Zugänge zu medienvermittelter Kommunikation (pp. 219-254). Heidelberg: Winter.
Brink, G. (2001). Zieht den Bayern die Lederhosen aus …“ Fußball-Fangesänge – Ein Thema für den schulischen Musikunterricht? Musik und Unterricht, 44–51.
Broth, M. & Lundström, F. (2013). A Walk on the pier. Establishing relevant places in a guided, introductory walk. In P. Haddington, L. Mondada, M. Nevile (Eds.). Interaction and mobility (pp. 91-122). Berlin: de Gruyter.
Brunner, G. (2009). Fangesänge im Fußballstadion. In A. Burkhardt, P. Schlobinski (Eds.). Flickflack, Foul und Tsukahara. Der Sport und seine Sprache (pp. 194-210). Mannheim: Dudenverlag (Thema Deutsch, Band 10).
Burkhardt, A. (2009). Der zwölfte Mann - Fankommunikation im Fußballstadion. In A. Burkhardt, P. Schlobinski (Eds.). Flickflack, Foul und Tsukahara. Der Sport und seine Sprache (pp.175-193). Mannheim: Dudenverlag (Thema Deutsch, Band 10).
Colón de Carvajal, I. (2011). Les énoncés choraux: une forme de segments répétés émergeant dans les interactions de jeux video. In H. Ter Minassian (Ed.). Les jeux vidéo comme objet de recherche. Collection Lecture > Play. (pp. 149-166). Paris : Questions théoriques.
Couper-Kuhlen, E. & Barth-Weingarten, D. (2011). A system for transcribing talk-in-interaction: GAT 2. Gesprächsforschung–Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion 12, 1–51.
Couper-Kuhlen, E. & Selting, M. (2017). Interactional Linguistics: An Introduction to Language in Social Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Couper-Kuhlen, E. & Selting, M. (2001). Introducing interactional linguistics. In M. Selting, E. Couper-Kuhlen (Eds.). Studies in interactional linguistics. (pp. 1-22). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
De Stefani, E. & Gazin, A.-D. (2014). Instructional sequences in driving lessons: Mobile participants and the temporal and sequential organization of actions. Journal of Pragmatics 65, 63-79. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.08.020
Deppermann, A. (2015). When recipient design fails: Egocentric turn-design of instructions in driving school lessons leading to breakdowns of intersubjectivity. Gesprächsforschung–Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion 16, 63-101.
Deppermann, A. (Ed.). (2018a). Instructions in driving lessons. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, special issue, 28(2).
Deppermann, A. (2018b). Instruction practices in German driving lessons: Differential uses of declaratives and imperatives. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 28(2), 265-282.
Drew, P. (2013). Turn Design. In J. Sidnell, T. Stivers (Eds.). The Handbook of Conversation Analysis (pp. 131-149). Malden, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Goodwin, C. (2003). The Body in Action. In J. Coupland, R. Gwyn, R. (Eds.). Discourse, the body, and Identity (pp. 19-42). New York: Palgrave MacMillian.
Groupe ICOR (2006, August 18). La démarche ethnographique. Retrieved from http://icar.univ-lyon2.fr/projets/corinte/recueil/demarche_ethnographique.htm.
Haddington, P., Keisanen, T., Mondada, L. & Nevile, M. (Eds.) (2014). Multiactivity in social interaction. Beyond multitasking. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Heinemann, T. & Möller, R.L. (2016). The virtual accomplishment of knitting: How novice knitters follow instructions when using a video tutorial. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction 8, 25-47.
Heritage, J. (2012). Epistemics in Action: Action Formation and Territories of Knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction 45, 1-29. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2012.646684
Holly, W. & Baldauf, H. (2001). Grundlagen des fernsehbegleitenden Sprechens. In W. Holly, U. Püschel, J.R. Bergmann (Eds.). Der sprechende Zuschauer. Wie wir uns Fernsehen kommunikativ aneignen (pp. 41-60). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Jakonen, T. (2018). Professional Embodiment: Walking, Re-engagement of Desk Interactions, and Provision of Instruction during Classroom Rounds. Applied Linguistics, amy034. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amy034
Keevallik, L. (2018). What Does Embodied Interaction Tell Us About Grammar? Research on Language and Social Interaction 51, 1-21.
Keevallik, L. (2017). Negotiating deontic rights in second position: Young adult daughters’ imperatively formatted responses to mothers’ offers in Estonian. In M.-L. Sorjonen, L. Raevaara, E. Couper-Kuhlen, E. (Eds.). Imperative Turns at Talk (pp.271-295). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Keevallik, L. (2010a). Bodily quoting in dance correction. Research on Language and Social Interaction 43, 401-426.
Keevallik, L. (2010b). Social action of syntactic reduplication. Journal of Pragmatics 42, 800-824. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.08.006
Keevallik, L. & Broth, M. (2014). Getting ready to move as a couple: Accomplishing Mobile Formations in a Dance Class, Space and Culture 17(2), 107-121.
Khodadadi, F. & Gründel, A. (2006). Sprache und Fußball- Fangesänge 30. Retrieved from http://www.linse.uni-due.de/linse/esel/pdf/Fussball_und_Sprache.pdf
Macbeth, D. (2004). The relevance of repair for classroom correction. Language in Society 33(5), 703-736.
Mehan, H. (1979). Learning Lessons: Social Organization in the Classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mondada, L. (2018). Multiple Temporalities of Language and Body in Interaction: Challenges for Transcribing Multimodality. Research on Language and Social Interaction 51(1), 85-106.
Mondada, L. (2017). Precision timing and timed embeddedness of imperatives in embodied courses of actions: Examples from French. In: M.-L. Sorjonen, L. Raevaara, E. Couper-Kuhlen, E. (Eds.). Imperative Turns at Talk (pp. 76-101). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Mondada, L. (2014a). Instructions in the operating room: How the surgeon directs their assistant’s hands. Discourse Studies 16, 131–161. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445613515325
Mondada, L. (2014b). Cooking instructions and the shaping of things in the kitchen. In M. Nevile, P. Haddington, T. Heinemann, M. Rauniomaa (Eds.). Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity (pp. 199-226), Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Mondada, L. (2013). Coordinating mobile action in real time: the timely organization of directives in video games. In P. Haddington, L. Mondada, M. Nevile (Eds.). Interaction and Mobility (pp. 300-341). Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.
Mondada, L. (2012). Coordinating action and talk-in-interaction in and out of video games. In R. Ayass, R., C. Gerhardt (Eds.). The appropriation of media in everyday life (pp. 231-270). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Mondada, L. (2011). The Situated Organisation of Directives in French: Imperatives and Action Coordination in Video Games. Nottingham French Studies 50, 19-50. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3366/nfs.2011-2.002
Okada, M. (2018). Imperative Actions in Boxing Sparring Sessions. Research on Language and Social Interaction 51, 67-84.
Rauniomaa, M. (2017). Assigning roles and responsibilities: Finnish imperatively formatted directive actions in a mobile instructional setting. In: M.-L. Sorjonen, L. Raevaara, E. Couper-Kuhlen, E. (Eds.). Imperative Turns at Talk (pp. 325-355). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Reeves, S., Greiffenhagen, C., Flintham, M., Benford, S., Adams, M., Row Farr, J. & Tandavantij, N. (2015). I’D Hide You: Performing Live Broadcasting in Public. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’15. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2573-2582. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702257
Reeves, S., Greiffenhagen, C. & Laurier, E. (2017). Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play. Topics in Cognitive Science 9, 308-342. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12234
Reynolds, E. (2017a). Description of membership and enacting membership: Seeing-a-lift, being a team. Journal of Pragmatics 118, 99–119. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.05.008
Reynolds, E. (2017b). Incitement in the gym: Using intonation as a resource. Ms.
Schilling, M. (2001). Reden und Spielen. Die Kommunikation zwischen Trainer und Spielern im gehobenen Amateurfußball. Stauffenburg: Tübingen.
Selting, M. (1994). Emphatic speech style: with special focus on the prosodic signalling of heightened emotive involvement in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 22, 375-408. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)90116-3
Sidnell, J. & Stivers, T. (Eds.) (2012). The Handbook of Conversation Analysis. Malden, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Simone, M. (2018). A situated analysis of instructions in paraclimbing training with visually impaired athletes. SHS Web of Conferences, 52. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20185203001
Skutella, L.V., Süssenbach, L., Pitsch, K. & Wagner, P. (2014). The prosody of motivation. First results from an indoor cycling scenario. In R. Hoffmann (Ed.). Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung (pp. 209-215). Dresden: TUD Press.
Sorjonen, M.-L., Raevaara, L. & Couper-Kuhlen, E. (Eds.) (2017). Imperative Turns at Talk, Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Stevanovic, M. & Kuusisto, A. (2018). Teacher Directives in Music Instruction: Activity Context, Student Cooperation, and Institutional Priority. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Retrieved fromC:\Users\Isabel\AppData\Local\Temp\ https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1476405
Stivers, T. (2004). “No no no” and Other Types of Multiple Sayings in Social Interaction. Human Communication Research 30, 260-293. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2004.tb00733.x
Stivers, T. & Rossano, F. (2010). Mobilizing Response. Research on Language and Social Interaction 43, 3-31.
Stukenbrock, A. (2014). Take the words out of my mouth: Verbal instructions as embodied practices. Journal of Pragmatics 65, 80-102.
Svensson, M., Heath, C. & Luff, P. (2009). Embedding instruction in practice: contingency and collaboration during surgical training. Sociology of Health and Illness 31(6), 889-906.
Svensson, M. Heath, C. & Luff, P. (2007). Instrumental action: the timely exchange of implements during surgical operations. in: ECSCW 2007 (pp. 41-60), London: Springer.
Tolins, J. (2013). Assessment and Direction Through Nonlexical Vocalizations in Music Instruction. Research on Language and Social Interaction 46, 47-64.
Vine, B. (2009). Directives at work: Exploring the contextual complexity of workplace directives. Journal of Pragmatics 41, 1395-1405. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.03.001
Zemel, A. & Koschmann, T. (2011). Pursuing a question: Reinitiating IRE sequences as a method of instruction. Journal of Pragmatics 43, 475-488.




How to Cite

Baldauf-Quilliatre, H., & Colón de Carvajal, I. (2020). Encouragement in videogame interactions. Social Interaction. Video-Based Studies of Human Sociality, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.7146/si.v2i2.118041