‘Couture military’ and a queer aesthetic curiosity: music video aesthetics, militarised fashion, and the embodied politics of stardom in Rihanna’s ‘Hard’

  • Catherine Baker
Nøgleord: Music, Politics, Militarism, aesthetic strategies, Rihanna, Female military masculinity


Music video is an underappreciated type of audiovisual artefact in studies of the aesthetics of world politics, which typically privilege linear narrative storytelling and struggle to communicate how sonic and embodied practices also constitute world politics as sensory experiences through which individuals make sense of the world. Yet the ways in which music video invites spectators’ senses to work together, and to filter meaning through their knowledge of stars’ own ‘meta-narratives’, expose an intimate and affective continuum between the politics of stardom and attachments to collective projects such as militarism. This paper explores that continuum through a study of Rihanna’s video ‘Hard’ and the aesthetic strategies it used to visualise her performance of a ‘female military masculinity’ in a fantasised space employing signifiers of US desert war.




Adriaans, R. (2016). Staging Sassoun: memory and music video in post-Soviet Armenia. Social Analysis, vol. 60(3), pp. 17–35. https://doi.org/10.3167/sa.2016.600302
Agathangelou, A.M., and Ling, L.H.M. (2009). Transforming World Politics: from Empire to Multiple Worlds. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203880333
Åhäll, L. (2015). “We are Gripen pilots”: the hidden politics of militarization and pop culture as political communication. In: F. Caso & C. Hamilton, eds., Popular Culture and World Politics: Theories, Methods, Pedagogies. Bristol: e-International Relations, pp. 63–72. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203880333
Åhäll, L. (2016). The dance of militarisation: a feminist security studies take on “the political”. Critical Studies on Security, vol. 4(2), pp. 154–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/21624887.2016.1153933
Åhäll, L. (2019a). Feeling Everyday IR: embodied, affective, militarising movement as choreography of war. Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 54(2), pp. 149–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010836718807501
Åhäll, L. (2019b). Gender, popular culture, and (in)security. In: C.E. Gentry, L.J. Shepherd & L. Sjoberg, eds, The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Security. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 296–308. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315525099-26
Aidi, H. (2011). The grand (hip-hop) chessboard: race, rap and raison d’état. Middle East Report, vol. 260, pp. 25–39.
Andén-Papadopoulos, K. (2009). US soldiers imaging the Iraq war on YouTube. Popular Communication, vol. 7(1), pp. 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/15405700802584 304
Arnold, G., Cookney, D., Fairclough, K., and Goddard, M. (2017). Introduction: the persistence of the music video form from MTV to twenty-first-century social media. In: G. Arnold, D. Cookney, K. Fairclough & M. Goddard, eds., Music/Video: Histories, Aesthetics, Media. London: Bloomsbury Academic, pp. 1–13.
Baker, C. (2010). Sounds of the Borderland: Popular Music, War and Nationalism in Croatia since 1991. Farnham: Ashgate. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315609973
Baker, C. (2013). Music as a weapon of ethnopolitical violence and conflict: processes of ethnic separation during and after the break-up of Yugoslavia. Patterns of Prejudice, vol. 47(4–5), pp. 409–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2013.835914
Baker, C. (2017). ‘The “gay Olympics”?: the Eurovision Song Contest and the politics of LGBT/European belonging. European Journal of International Relations, vol. 23 (1), pp. 97–121. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354066116633278
Basham, V.M. (2016). Gender, race, militarism and remembrance: the everyday geopolitics of the poppy. Gender, Place and Culture, vol. 23(6), pp. 883–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2015.1090406
Behnke, A., ed. (2017). The International Politics of Fashion: Being Fab in a Dangerous World. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315765082
Bierria, A. (2011). “Where them bloggers at?”: reflections on Rihanna, accountability, and survivor subjectivity. Social Justice, vol. 34(4), pp. 101–25.
Birkedal, K.H.S. (2019). Closing traps: emotional attachment, intervention and juxtaposition in cosplay and International Relations. Journal of International Political Theory, vol. 15 (2), pp. 188–209. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1755088219830112
Bleiker, R. (2005). Of things we hear but cannot see: musical explorations of international politics. In: M.I. Franklin, ed., Resounding International Relations: on Music, Culture, and Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 179–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-05617-7_9
Bleiker, R., ed. (2018). Visual Global Politics. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315856506
Boulton, A. (2008). The popular geopolitical wor(l)ds of post-9/11 country music. Popular Music and Society, vol. 31(3), pp. 373–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/03007760701563518
Brown, M.T. (2012). “A woman in the Army is still a woman”: representations of women in US military recruiting advertisements for the all-volunteer force. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, vol. 33 (2), pp. 151–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/1554477X.2012.667737
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203824979
Cannen, E. (2014). Avant-garde militarism and a post-hip-hop president: Obama’s presidential masculinity in images. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 16(2), pp. 255–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2013.780375
Cassar, J. (2019). Ethical implications in teaching and learning about intimate partner violence and femicide prevention. Education Inquiry, vol. 10(1), pp. 76–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1476001
Clark, V. (2014). Entanglements of neoliberal capitalism, whiteness, and technoculture in early childhood art encounters. Power and Education, vol. 6(3), pp. 318–26. https://doi.org/10.2304%2Fpower.2014.6.3.318
Chatzipapatheodoridis, C. (2017). Beyoncé’s slay trick: the performance of black camp and its intersectional politics. Open Cultural Studies, vol. 1, pp. 406–16. https://doi.org/10.1515/culture-2017-0038 [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Chouliaraki, L. (2013). The humanity of war: iconic photojournalism of the battlefield, 1914–2012. Visual Communication, vol. 12(3), pp. 315–40. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1470357213484422
Chouliaraki, L, and Kissas, A. (2018). The communication of horrorism: a typology of ISIS online death videos. Critical Studies in Media Communication, vol. 35(1), pp. 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2017.1393096
Cockburn, C. (2004). The continuum of violence: a gender perspective on war and peace. In: W. Giles & J. Hyndman, eds., Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 24–44.
Côte, T. (2011). Popular musicians and their songs as threats to national security: a world perspective. Journal of Popular Culture, 44(4), pp. 732–54. https://doi.org/10. 1111/j.1540-5931.2011.00860.x
Crane-Seeber, J.P. (2016). Sexy warriors: the politics and pleasures of submission to the state. Critical Military Studies, vol. 2(1–2), pp. 41–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2016.1144402
Crone, M. (2014). Religion and violence: governing Muslim militancy through aesthetic assemblages. Millennium, vol. 43(1), pp. 291–307. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0305829814541166
Davies, M, and Franklin, M.I. (2015). What does (the study of) world politics sound like? In: F. Caso & C. Hamilton, eds., Popular Culture and World Politics: Theories, Methods, Pedagogies. Bristol: e-International Relations, pp. 120–47. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203880333
Der Derian, J. (2009). Virtuous War: Mapping the Military–Industrial–Media–Entertainment Network, 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203881538
Dunn, K.C. (2008). Never mind the bollocks: the punk rock politics of global communication. Review of International Studies, vol. 34(S1), pp. 193–210. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210508007869
Dyer, R. (1998). Stars, 2nd ed. London: BFI.
Dyvik, S.L. (2014). Women as “practitioners” and “targets”: gender and counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 16(3), pp. 410–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2013.779139
Enck, S.M., and McDaniel, B.A. (2012). Playing with fire: cycles of domestic violence in Eminem and Rihanna’s “Love the Way You Lie”. Communication, Culture and Critique, vol. 5(4), pp. 618–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-9137.2012.01147.x
Enloe, C. (2014). Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Enloe, C. (2016). Globalization and Militarism: Feminists Make the Link, 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Eken, M.E. (2019). How geopolitical becomes personal: method acting, war films and affect. Journal of International Political Theory 15 (2): 210–28. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1755088219832328
Eroukhmanoff, C. (2017). A feminist reading of foreign policy under Trump: Mother of All Bombs, wall and the “locker room banter”. Critical Studies on Security, vol. 5(2), 177–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/21624887.2017.1355156
Ferreday, D. (2017). “Only the Bad Gyal could do this”: Rihanna, rape-revenge narratives and the cultural politics of white feminism. Feminist Theory, vol. 18(3), pp. 263–80. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1464700117721879
Fisher, J.P., and Flota, B., eds. (2011). The Politics of Post-9/11 Music: Sound, Trauma, and the Music Industry in the Time of Terror. Farnham: Ashgate. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315554310
Fleetwood, N.R. (2012). The case of Rihanna: erotic violence and black female desire. African American Review, vol. 45(3), pp. 419–35. https://doi.org/10.1353/afa.2012.0047
Franklin, M.I. (2005). Introductory improvisations on a theme: resounding International Relations. In: M.I. Franklin, ed., Resounding International Relations: on Music, Culture, and Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-05617-7_1
Friis, S.M. (2015). “Beyond anything we have ever seen”: beheading videos and the visibility of violence in the war against ISIS. International Affairs, vol. 91(4), pp. 725–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12341
Fulani, I. (2012). Who is Grace Jones? In: I. Fulani, ed., Archipelagos of Sound: Trans-national Caribbeanities, Women and Music. Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press, pp. 241–64.
Gilroy, P. (1993). The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. London: Verso.
Goodwin, A. (1992). Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Graff, A., Kapur, R., and Walters, S.D. (2019). Introduction: gender and the rise of the global Right. Signs, vol. 44(3), pp. 541–60. https://doi.org/10.1086/701152
Grayson, K., Davies, M., and Philpott, S. (2009). Pop goes IR?: researching the popular culture–world politics continuum. Politics, vol. 29(3), pp. 155–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9256.2009.01351.x
Grayson, K., and Mawdsley, J. (2019). Scopic regimes and the visual turn in International Relations: seeing world politics through the drone. European Journal of International Relations, vol. 25(2), pp. 431–57. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354066118781955
Halberstam, J. (1998). Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hale, C.J. (1997). Leatherdyke boys and their daddies: how to have sex without women or men. Social Text 52–53: 223–36. https://doi.org/10.2307/466741
Hast, S. (2018). Sounds of War: Aesthetics, Emotions and Chechnya. Bristol: e-IR. https://www.e-ir.info/publication/sounds-of-war-aesthetics-emotions-and-chechnya/ [Accessed 19 August 2019)]
Henry, M. (2017). Problematizing military masculinity, intersectionality and male vulnerability in feminist critical military studies. Critical Military Studies, vol. 3(2): 182–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2017.1325140
Hilderbrand, Lucas. (2013). Paris is Burning: a Queer Film Classic. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press.
Hobson, J. (2012). Body as Evidence: Mediating Race, Globalizing Gender. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Houlihan, A., and Raynor, S.D. (2014). Victim, risqué, provocateur: popular cultural narratives of Rihanna’s experience of intimate partner violence. Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 29(81), pp. 325–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2014.959160
Howell, A. (2015). Resilience, war, and austerity: the ethics of military human enhancement and the politics of data. Security Dialogue, vol. 46(1), pp. 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0967010614551040
Howell, A. (2018). Forget “militarization”: race, disability and the “martial politics” of the police and of the university. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 20(2), pp. 117–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2018.1447310
Hozic, A.A. (1999). Uncle Sam goes to Siliwood: of landscapes, Spielberg and hegemony. Review of International Political Economy, vol. 6(3), pp. 289–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/096922999347191
James, R. (2008). “Robo-Diva R&B”: aesthetics, politics, and black female robots in con-temporary popular music. Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 2 (4), pp. 402–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-1598.2008.00171.x
James, R. (2015). Resilience and Melancholy: Pop Music, Feminism, Neoliberalism. London: Zero.
Jarvis, L., and Robinson, N. (In press). War, time, and military videogames: heterogeneities and critical potential. Critical Military Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2019.1573014 [Accessed 10 March 2020]
Jeffords, S. (1994). Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era. Princeton, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Jelača, D. (2017). Film feminism, post-cinema, and the affective turn. In: K.L. Hole, D. Jelača, E.A. Kaplan & P. Petro, eds., The Routledge Companion to Cinema and Gender. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 446–57. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315684062
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.
Jones, E. (2013). On the real: agency, abuse, and sexualized violence in Rihanna’s “Russian Roulette”. African American Review, vol. 46(1), pp. 71–86.
Jones, S., and Subotić, J. (2011). Fantasies of power: performing Europeanization on the European periphery. European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 14(5), pp. 542–57. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1367549411412199
Kaplan, E.A. (1987). Rocking Around the Clock: Music Video, Postmodernism and Consumer Culture. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315623993
Kelen, C. (2014). Anthem Quality: National Songs: a Theoretical Survey. Bristol: Intellect.
Kershaw, M. (1997). Postcolonialism and androgyny: the performance art of Grace Jones. Art Journal, vol. 56(4), pp. 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043249.1997.10791845
Knudsen, B.T., and Stage, C. (2013). Online war memorials: YouTube as a democratic space of commemoration exemplified through video tributes to fallen Danish soldiers. Memory Studies, vol. 6(4), pp. 418–36. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1750698012458309
Kraska, P.B. (2007). Militarization and policing – its relevance to 21st century police. Policing, vol. 1(4), pp. 501–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/pam065
Leander, A. (2017). Digital/commercial (in)visibility: the politics of DAESH recruitment videos. European Journal of Social Theory, vol. 20(3), pp. 348–72. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1368431016668365
Leigh, D., and Weber, C. (2019). Gendered and sexualized figurations of security. In: C.E. Gentry, L.J. Shepherd & L. Sjoberg, eds, The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Security. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 83–93. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315525099
Lock, K. (2005). Who is listening?: hip-hop in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Senegal. In: M.I. Franklin, ed., Resounding International Relations: on Music, Culture, and Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 141–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-05617-7_7
Manghani, S. (2017). The pleasures of (music) video. In: G. Arnold, D. Cookney, K. Fairclough & M. Goddard, eds., Music/Video: Histories, Aesthetics, Media. London: Bloomsbury Academic, pp. 21–40.
McClary, S. (2000). Conventional Wisdom: the Content of Musical Form. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Mirrlees, T. (2016). Hearts and Mines: the US Empire’s Culture Industry. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Montgomery, J. (2009). Rihanna reveals concept of “Hard” video: “couture military”. M News, 3 December. http://www.mtv.com/news/1627582/rihanna-reveals-concept-of-hard-video-couture-military/ [Accessed 19 August 2019)]
Müller, T.R. (2018). ‘Celebrity’. In: R. Bleiker (ed.), Visual Global Politics. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 42–7. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315856506
Muñoz, J.E. (1999). Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Newman, J. (2013). Sounding military identity through US and Canadian recruiting videos. Ethnomusicology Review, vol. 18. https://www.ethnomusicologyreview.ucla.edu/journal/volume/18/piece/701 [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Nielson, E. (2009). “My president is black, my Lambo’s blue”: the Obamafication of rap? Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 21(4), pp. 344–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-1598.2009.01207.x
Ombati, M. (2015). Feminine masculinities in the military: the case of female combatants in the Kenya Defence Forces’ operation in Somalia. African Security Review, vol. 24(4), pp. 403–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10246029.2015.1099339
Patruss, K. (2016). “The face of evil”: the discourse on ISIS and the visual complexities in the ISIS beheading videos. Politik, vol. 19(4). https://tidsskrift.dk/politik/article/view/27636 [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Pettan, S., ed. (1998). Music, Politics, and War: Views from Croatia. Zagreb: IEF.
Pruitt, L.J. (2013). Youth Peacebuilding: Music, Gender, and Change. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Railton, D., and Watson, P., (2012). Music Video and the Politics of Representation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Ramel, F., and Prévost-Thomas, C., eds. (2018). International Relations, Music and Diplomacy: Sounds and Voices on the International Stage. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63163-9
Rech, M.F., and Williams, A.J. (2016). Researching at military airshows: a dialogue about ethnography and autoethnography. In: A.J. Williams, K.N. Jenkings, M.F. Rech & R. Woodward., eds., The Routledge Companion to Military Research Methods. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 268–85. https://doi.org/10.4324 /9781315613253
Repo, J., and Yrjölä, R. (2011). The gender politics of celebrity humanitarianism in Africa. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 13(1), pp. 44–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2011.534661
Richardson, J., Gorbman, C., and Vernallis, C., eds. (2013). The Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199733866.001.0001
Rihanna. 2009. Rihanna – Hard ft. Jeezy. YouTube, 22 December. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xcwd_Nz6Zog [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Ritter, J., and Daughtry, J.M., eds. (2007). Music in the Post-9/11 World. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203942048
Rodier, K., Meagher, M., and Nixon, R. (2012). Cultivating a critical classroom for viewing gendered violence in music video. Feminist Teacher, vol. 23(1), pp. 63–70.
Rowley, C, and Shepherd, L.J. (2012). Contemporary politics: using the “F” word and teaching gender in International Relations. In: C. Gormley-Heenan and S. Light-foot, eds., Teaching Politics and International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 146–61. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137003560_12
Russell, H.D. (2012). Whose Rihanna?: diasporic citizenship and the economies of crossing over. In: I. Fulani, ed., Archipelagos of Sound: Transnational Caribbeanities, Women and Music. Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press, pp. 299–320.
Satran, R. (2016). Inside the Rihanna Navy: her most extreme super-fans speak out. i-D, 1 August. https://i-d.vice.com/en_uk/article/xwxn73/inside-the-rihanna-navy-her-most-extreme-super-fans-speak-out [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Saugmann Andersen, R. (2017). Video, algorithms and security: how digital video plat-forms produce post-sovereign security articulations. Security Dialogue, vol. 48(4), pp. 354–72. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0967010617709875
Shafer, L. (2016). “Tik tok on the clock, but the party don’t stop, no”: the parodic military dance video on YouTube. In: D.A. Cunningham & J.C. Nelson, eds., A Companion to the War Film. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 320–37. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118337653.ch19
Shepherd, L.J. (2013). Gender, Violence and Popular Culture: Telling Stories. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203105030
Shepherd, L.J. (2018). Militarisation. In: R. Bleiker (ed.), Visual Global Politics. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 209–14. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315856506
Shepherd, L.J., and Hamilton, C., eds. (2016). Understanding Popular Culture and World Politics in the Digital Age. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315673394
Shilliam, R. (2015). The Black Pacific: Anti-Colonial Struggles and Oceanic Connections. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Sjoberg, L. (2007). Agency, militarized femininity and enemy others: observations from the war in Iraq. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 9(1), pp. 82–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616740601066408
Sjoberg, L., and Gentry, C.E. (2015). Beyond Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Thinking about Women’s Violence in Global Politics. London: Zed.
Slee, S.M. (2017). Moving the music: dance, action, and embodied identity. In: G. Arnold, D. Cookney, K. Fairclough & M. Goddard, eds., Music/Video: Histories, Aesthetics, Media. London: Bloomsbury Academic, pp. 147–62.
Sobchack, V. (2004). Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Solomon, T. (2015). Embodiment, emotions, and materialism in International Relations. In: L. Åhäll & T. Gregory, eds., Emotions, Politics and War. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 58–70. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315765068
Stahl, R. (2010). Militainment, Inc.: War, Media, and Popular Culture. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203879603
Steele, V. (1996). Fetish: Fashion, Sex and Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stoever, J.L. (2016). The Sonic Color Line: Race and the Cultural Politics of Listening. New York: NYU Press.
Stone, A.L., and Shapiro, E. (2017). “You’re really just a gay man in a woman’s body”: the possibilities and perils of queer sexuality. Men and Masculinities, vol. 20(2), pp. 254–72. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1097184X15625316
Street, J. (2013). The sound of geopolitics: popular music and political rights. Popular Communication, vol. 11(1), pp. 47–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15405702.2013.748316
Swofford, A. (2018). “Full Metal Jacket” seduced my generation and sent us to war. The New York Times Magazine, 18 April. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/18/magazine/full-metal-jacket-ermey-marine-corps.html [Accessed 19 August 2019]
Sylvester, C. (2013). War as Experience: Contributions from International Relations and Feminist Analysis. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203100943
Tasker, Y. (2011). Soldiers’ Stories: Military Women in Cinema and Television since World War II. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Tasker, Y. (2017). Military women in cinema: war stories and future worlds. In: C. Duncanson and R. Woodward, eds., The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 493–508. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-51677-0_30
Thaller, J, and Messing, J.T. (2014). (Mis)perceptions around intimate partner violence in the music video and lyrics for “Love the Way You Lie”. Feminist Media Studies, vol. 14(4), pp. 623–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2013.826267
Tynan, J. (2013). Military chic: fashioning civilian bodies for war. In: K. McSorley, ed., War and the Body: Militarisation, Practice and Experience. London and New York: Routledge, 78–89. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203081419
Vernallis, C. (2004). Experiencing Music Video: Aesthetics and Cultural Context. New York: Columbia University Press.
Vernallis, C. (2013). Unruly Media: YouTube, Music Video, and the New Digital Cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso /9780199766994.001.0001
Wallace, A. (2017). A critical view of Beyonce’s “Formation”. Black Camera, vol. 9(1), pp. 189–96.
Weber, C. (2016). Queer International Relations: Sovereignty, Sexuality and the Will to Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795857.001.0001
Wibben, A.T.R. (2011). Feminist Security Studies: a Narrative Approach. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203834886
Wiedlack, K. (2016). Pussy Riot and the Western gaze: punk music, solidarity and the production of similarity and difference. Popular Music and Society, vol. 39(4), pp. 410–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/03007766.2015.1088281
Woodward, R., and Jenkings, K.N. (2012). “This place isn’t worth the left boot of one of our boys”: geopolitics, militarism, and memoirs of the Afghanistan war. Political Geography, vol. 31(8), pp. 495–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2012.10.006
Youngs, G., Lisle, D., and Zalewski, M. (1999). Three readings of G.I. Jane. International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 1(3), pp. 476–81. https://doi.org/10.1080 /146167499359844
Zeeland, Steven. 1996. The Masculine Marine: Homoeroticism in the U.S. Marine Corps. Philadelphia, PA: Haworth Press.
Baker, C. (2020). ‘Couture military’ and a queer aesthetic curiosity: music video aesthetics, militarised fashion, and the embodied politics of stardom in Rihanna’s ‘Hard’. Politik, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.7146/politik.v23i1.120308