Direktive dynamisk-lokative sætningsemner

Opbygning, betydning og modificering

  • Lennart Westergaard University of Copenhagen

Abstract

The paper gives an account of a subtype of Danish non-finite constructions that express a theme argument's movement towards a goal. They are termed ‘directive dynamic-locative non-finite predications’. The structural analysis shows that the construction has two variants: 1. a non-agentive variant with two arguments: a theme and a locative goal; and 2. a causative variant with three arguments, i.e. additionally an agentive argument. In both cases an adverb functions as the head of the construction.

In the previous literature, it has been argued that the construction codes for mood, distinguishing between directives and non-directives realized as a topological paradigm (Hansen & Heltoft 2011). However, I show that the variants are not formally distinguished. Both variants are, though, in complementary distribution, with the prototypical directive variant only occurring with present time reference and the narrative variant only occurring with past time reference. The directive and the narrative variant are analysed as polysemous and resemble historical imperatives.

Based on the co-occurrence of clausal adverbials with the construction, it is argued that a structural analysis (in terms of categorical dependency to finiteness) of these in Danish should be reconsidered. An analysis solely based on their semantic scope with regard to the model of the layered clause structure seems more fruitful.

References

Bech, G. (1951) Grundzüge der semantischen Entwicklungsgeschichte der deutschen Modalverba (= Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk filologiske Meddelelser, Bind 32, Nr. 6.), København.
Diderichsen, P. (1957) Elementær dansk grammatik 2. udg., delvis omarbejdet., København: Gyldendal.
Dik, S., Hengeveld, K., Vester, E., et al. (2005). The hierarchical structure of the clause and the typology of adverbial satellites. I Crucial Readings in Functional Grammar. Berlin, Boston: DE GRUYTER, 169-215.
Durst-Andersen, P. (1995) Imperative frames and modality. I: Linguistics and Philosophy, 18(6), 611–653.
Hansen, E. & L. Heltoft (2011) Grammatik over det Danske Sprog. København: Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
Holvoet, A. (2018) Sources for historical imperatives. I: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 50(1),.36–51.
Hopper, P. J. & Traugott, E.C., 2003. Grammaticalization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jakobson, R. (1971) Zur Struktur des russischen Verbums. I: Selected Writings II, The Hague: Mouton, 3-15
Lehmann, Chr. (2015) Thoughts on grammaticalization, 3rd ed. Berlin, Tyskland: Language Science Press.
Mikkelsen, K. (1911) Dansk Ordföjningslære med sproghistorisk Tillæg, Håndbog for Viderekomne og Lærere. København: Lehmann & Stages Forlag.
Sørensen, M.-L. L. & K. Boye (2017). Lagdelt indholdsstruktur i selvstændige ytringer og direkte og indirekte ytringsgengivelse. Ny Forskning i Grammatik 24, 121-140.
Published
2019-02-19
How to Cite
Westergaard, L. (2019). Direktive dynamisk-lokative sætningsemner. Journal of Language Works - Sprogvidenskabeligt Studentertidsskrift, 3(2), 75-91. Retrieved from https://tidsskrift.dk/lwo/article/view/112505
Section
Articles