European land settlement and development in Latin America: the evolution of an idea from Interwar to the early Post-WWII years
Keywords:migration, land settlement, migration management, development, ICEM
This article examines the birth and evolution of the idea of land settlement as a way to combine and resolve two issues diachronically considered problematic: on the one hand, the underdevelopment in Latin America due to a certain extent to the lack of labour force that could exploit the immense lands available; on the other hand, the overpopulation in Europe accompanied by volatile problems such as unemployment, particularly in critical times such as between and after the two World Wars. Based on archival material retrieved from the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington D.C., the Archives of the FDR Presidential Library and Museum in New York, the Archives of the IOM Office in Athens and the São Paulo State Archive, we attempt to provide a genealogy of this idea since the Interwar period and the ways in which it has materialised by governments and international organisations, namely the ILO and the ICEM.
A Gazeta, 1956, April 11.
Arendt, Isabel Cristina. 2011. “Um periódico para escolas alemãs no exterior e a produção cultural de emigrantes na América Latina.” In Anais do XXVI Simpósio nacional de História – ANPUH, São Paulo, 2011, 1-13. São Paulo: ANPUH-SP. Available at <http://snh2011.anpuh.org/resources/anais/14/ 1300477576_ARQUIVO_textocompletoIsabelBilhao.pdf>. Last accessed 23 March 2022.
“Basic working paper of meeting of land settlement experts, Florence”. September 1953. LSF/2, National Archives Records Administration (NARA). Washington D.C.Bell, Stephen. 2014. “Making tracks toward the environmental history of Brazil: a personal journey in historical geography.” Fronteiras: Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science 3 (2): 15-33.
Bell, Stephen; Silva, Sandro Dutra e. 2018. “Colonização agrária no Brasil Central: fontes inéditas sobre as pesquisas de campo de Henry Bruman em Goiás, na década de 1950.” Topoi 19 (37): 198-225.
Bowman, Isaiah. 1945. “Land settlement and resource development.” Nature 155 (3923): 5-10.
Breunig, Bernd. 1983. Die deutsche Rolandwanderung (1932-1938): soziologische Analyse in historischer, wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sicht. Munich: Nymphenburger Verlag.
Cohen, Gerald D. 2012. In war’s wake: Europe’s displaced persons in the postwar order. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Damilakou, Maria. 2004. Έλληνες μετανάστες στην Αργεντινή (1900-1970). Διαδικασίες συγκρότησης και μετασχηματισμοί μιας μεταναστευτικής κοινότητας [Greek migrants in Argentina: processes of formation and transformations of a migrant community]. Athens: Historical Archive; Emporiki Bank.
Dana, Leo-Paul; Dana, Teresa E. 2008. “Collective entrepreneurship in a Mennonite community in Paraguay.” Latin American Business Review 8 (4): 82-96.
Diario de São Paulo, 1956, November 25.
Diario Popular, 1956, May 5.
Eicher, John. 2014. “Diaspora Hermeneutics: Mennonite Refugee Narratives Between the World Wars.” In New Perspectives in Diasporic Experience. Amsterdam: Brill, 35-47.
Falbel, Nachman. 2007. “Jewish agricultural settlement in Brazil.” Jewish History 21: 325-340.
Falchi, Giovanni. 1955. “Letter of G. Falchi, Chief at the Department of Plans and Liaison of ICEM headquarters to P. Gibson, Chief of the ICEM Liaison Mission in Athens”, 8 February 1955, Ref. No. 70/2, Archives of International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Athens.
Fanfulla, 1956a, May 5.
Fanfulla, 1956b, May 6.
Fanfulla, 1956c, August 12.
Fanfulla, 1956d, August 16.
Field, Henry. 1962. “M” project for F.D.R.: studies on migration and settlement. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Bros.
Fischel de Andrade, José H. 2011. “Brazil and the International Refugee Organization (1946–1952).” Refugee Survey Quarterly 30 (1): 65-88.
Folha da Manha, 1956a, August 8.
Folha da Manha, 1956b, August 9.
Gazeta Mercantil, 1956, November 30.
Giardino, Comte Giusti Del. 1952. “Verbatim records (French)”, 3rd Session of the PICMME, Washington D.C., 13 June 1952, NARA, Washington D.C.
Gibson, Hugh. 1952. “Technical aid and international financing for the encouragement of migratory movements form Europe. Report of the Director submitted in accordance with Resolution No. 24”, paragraph 20, 2 October 1952, PIC/72, NARA, Washington D.C.
Gibson, Hugh. 1953. “Report on land settlement (presented by the Director)”, 12 October 1953, MC/31, NARA, Washington D.C.
Goossen, Benjamin. 2017. Chosen nation: Mennonites and Germany in a global era. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
ICEM. 1953. “Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration: meeting of land settlement experts, Florence: the framework for the meeting”, 6 August 1953, LSF/1, NARA, Washington D.C.
ICEM. 1957. “Migrants transported by the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, 1 January - 31 March 1957 (With Cumulative Total from 1 February 1952)”, NARA, Washington D.C.
Inter-American Development Commission. 1944. Proceedings of the Conference of Commissions of Inter-American Development, New York, May 9 to 18, 1944. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Development Commission.
Jacobsen, Peter. 1955. “Report on progress and prospects, 1955 covering the period 1 January - 15 March 1955 (submitted by the deputy director)”, 1 April 1955, MC/130, NARA, Washington D.C.
Kohlhepp, Gerd. 1975. Agrarkolonisation in Nord-Paraná. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Kothe, Mercedes Gassen. 1993. “Organizações ligadas à emigração alemã para o Brasil.” Textos de História 1 (2): 73-109.
Kulischer, Eugene M. 1943 “Planned migration and the ILO”, World Economics 2 (1-2): 82-89.
Lozada, Enrique de. 1944. “Survey of laws and regulations dealing with migration and their application to South and Central America”, Studies on Migration and Settlement, 1, L-10, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Archive (FDRPLA), New York.
Morales-Macedo, Fernando. 1952. “Verbatim records (French)”, 3rd Session of the PICMME, Washington D.C., 13 June 1952, NARA, Washington D.C.
Muller, Keith D. 1974. Pioneer settlement in south Brazil: the case of Toledo, Paraná. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Paiva, Odair da Cruz. 2008. “Migrações internacionais pós Segunda Guerra Mundial: a influência dos EUA no controle e gestão dos deslocamentos populacionais nas décadas de 1940 a 1960.” In Anais do XIX Encontro Regional de História: poder, violência e exclusão, ANPUH, São Paulo, 2008. São Paulo: ANPUH-SP.
Papadopoulos, Yannis G.S.; Parsanoglou, Dimitris. 2015. “Operationalizing the regulation of human mobility in the 1940s” In International “migration management” in the early Cold War: the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, edited by Lina Venturas, 33-55. Corinth: University of the Peloponnese.
Papadopoulos, Yannis G.S.; Kourachanis, Nikos. 2015. “Overall European overseas outflows and internationally assisted movements (1945-1960): who was helped to move? Where to?” In International “migration management” in the early Cold War: the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, edited by Lina Venturas, 143-190. Corinth: University of the Peloponnese.
Papadopoulos, Yannis G.S. 2022. “Skills, genes, and politics: creating a profile for desirable immigrants in Brazil” In Migration and Development in Southern Europe and South America during the Postwar Period, edited by Maria Damilakou and Yannis Papadopoulos, 70-86. London: Routledge, 2022.
Parsanoglou, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Yannis G.S. 2019. “Regulating human mobility through networking and outsourcing: ICEM, IOs and NGOs during the 1950s.” Journal of Migration History 5 (2): 332-352.
Parsanoglou, Dimitris; Tourgeli, Panagiota. 2017a. “The Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) as part of the post-WWII ‘world-making’.” In Peoples and borders: seventy years of migration in Europe, from Europe, to Europe (1945-2015), edited by Elena Calandri, Simone Paoli and Antonio Varsori, 37-55. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Parsanoglou, Dimitris; Tourgeli, Panagiota. 2017b. “Towards the ‘management’ of international labour mobility: ICEM and ILO migration policies in the 1950s.” In Lavoro! Storia, organizzazione e narrazione del lavoro nel XX secolo, edited by Novella di Nunzio and Matteo Troilo, 25-35. Rome: Aracne editrice.
Peterson, Glen. 2012. “The uneven development of the international refugee regime in postwar Asia: evidence from China, Hong Kong and Indonesia.” Journal of Refugee Studies 25 (3): 326-343.
Prutsch, Ursula. 2014 “Migrantes na periferia: indígenas, europeus e japoneses no Paraná durante as primeiras décadas do século XX.” História, Ciências, Saúde ‒ Manguinhos 21 (1): 218-236.
Ramos, Renê Wagner. 2016. “As colônias de Castrolanda, Witmarsum, Entre Rios e a agroindustrialização do campo no Paraná.” Revista NEP 2 (3): 208-228.
Risquez-Iribarren, R. 1953. “Medical services in land settlement work”, 21 September 1953, LSF/3, NARA, Washington D.C.
Robinson, Greg. 2005. “Le Projet M de Franklin D. Roosevelt: construire un monde meilleur grâce à la science... des races.” Critique internationale 27: 65-82.
Schneider, Maikel Gustavo. 2017 “Uma célula alemã na Colônia Porto Novo: a Linha Presidente Becker (1934).” Revista Espaço Acadêmico 17 (199): 91-102.
Seleção de agricultores. 1952. “Report to Henrique Doria de Vasconcelos, Director of the Council of Immigration and Colonization of São Paulo”, August 21, F. C429, Arquivo do Estado do São Paulo.
Seleção de agricultores 1953. “Requerimento N. 645 de 1953”, F. C429, Arquivo do Estado do São Paulo.
Stein, Marcos N. 2011. O oitavo dia: produção de sentidos identitários na Colônia Entre Rios ‒ PR (segunda metade do século XX). Guarapuava: UNICENTRO.
Thomas, Albert. 1927. “International migration and its control.” In Proceedings of the World Population Conference held at the Salle Centrale, Geneva, August 29th to September 3rd, 1927, edited by Margaret Sanger, 256-265. London: Edward Arnold & Co.US
Delegation. 1951 “A plan to facilitate the movement of surplus populations from countries of Western Europe and Greece to countries affording resettlement opportunities overseas (submitted by the United States Delegation)”, Brussels Migration Conference, 24 November 1951, MCB/3, NARA, Washington D.C.
Venturas, Lina (ed.). 2015. International “Migration Management” in the early Cold War: the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration. Corinth: University of the Peloponnese.
Visão 1956, April 13.
Holleuffer, Henriette von. 2002. “Seeking new horizons in Latin America: the resettlement of 100.000 European displaced persons between the Gulf of Mexico and Patagonia (1947–1951).” Jahrbuch für Geschichte Lateinamerikas 39 (1): 125-161.
Waelbroeck, Pierre. 1944. “The International Labour Office and world migration”, Studies on Migration and Settlement, 4, L-35, FDRPLA, New York.
How to Cite
Counting from volume 31 (2022), articles published in Diálogos Latinoamericanos are licensed under CC-BY 4.0. Read more about the license terms here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
No Creative Commons license applied on volumes 1-30. All rights reserved by the authors. Readers may download, read, and link to the articles, but they cannot republish the articles.
With the publication of volume 31 (2022), authors retain the full copyright to their articles and give Diálogos Latinoamericanos the right to the first publication. Authors also retain copyright to earlier versions of manuscripts, such as the submitted (pre-print) and the accepted manuscript (post-print).
Copyright to articles published in volumes 1-30 is held by the authors.