# On the Density of Normal Bases in Finite Fields

### Abstract

Let Fqn denote the finite field with q^n elements, for q being a prime power. Fqn may be regarded as an n-dimensional vector space over Fq. alpha in Fqn generates a normal basis for this vector space (Fqn : Fq), if

{alpha, alpha^q, alpha^q^2 , . . . , alpha^q^(n−1)} are linearly independent over Fq. Let N(q; n) denote the number of elements in Fqn that generate a normal basis for

Fqn : Fq, and let nu(q, n) = N(q,n)/q^n denote the frequency of such elements.

We show that there exists a constant c > 0 such that

nu(q, n) >= c / sqrt(log _q n) ,for all n, q >= 2

and this is optimal up to a constant factor in that we show

0.28477 <= lim inf (q, n) sqrt( log_q n ) <= 0.62521, for all q >= 2

We also obtain an explicit lower bound:

nu(q, n) >= 1 / e [log_q n], for all n, q >= 2

*BRICS Report Series*,

*4*(44). https://doi.org/10.7146/brics.v4i44.18970

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