Scandinavian Studies in Language 2020-10-30T06:30:10+01:00 Ulf Dalvad Berthelsen Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Scandinavian Studies in Language</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed English-language journal that bridges Scandinavian and global research trends. Taking a starting point in Scandinavian languages and language use, the journal is devoted to the study of language in all its richness and complexity - to the meanings, functions, structures, and contexts of language and linguistic practices.</p> <p><strong>Interdisciplinary</strong> in its orientation, our journal encourages contributions that study language in relation to culture and cognition, nature and environment, society and institutions, education and media, and to new and interdisciplinary ways of studying, analyzing and theorizing language and life in Scandinavia and beyond.</p> <p>We publish all our papers online. Hosted by the The Roayl Danish Library in Denmark, our journal provides <strong>free and open access</strong> &nbsp;to all our publications. This is an important value for us. In a world that is increasingly sealing off research behind paywalls, we are committed to providing access to researchers and students across Scandinavia and the world.</p> <p><strong>Our vision</strong> is to connect Scandinavia and the world through the publication of papers and special issues that bring together multiple perspectives and traditions. We encourage shared linguistic explorations of topical issues. Current examples are an issue on language in the Norwegian TV-series Skam and an issue on the social life of interjections.</p> <p><strong>Would you like to be a guest editor for a special issue?</strong></p> <p>Please contact one of the editors-in-chief (see below) with your proposal for a special issue. Also, if you are organizing or hosting a workshop, panel and conference on a topic relevant to <em>Scandinavian Studies in Language</em>, you are welcome to contact us to discuss in advance if we would be interested in cooperating with you in publishing the papers in a special issue.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Questioning Questions in Language, Culture and Cognition 2020-10-30T06:30:10+01:00 Simon Borchmann Sune Sønderberg Mortensen Louise Tranekjær <p>The motivation for questioning questions arose in the research group Language, Culture and Cognition in 2018 when several members were working on material that included questions. In this work, a series of problems appeared, including: How do we classify questions based on their functions? What is the cognitive basis for questions? How do we account for the specific functions that questions serve in activity types? The problems led to consideration as to whether there was a basis for a broader discussion of questions, and when the group invited to the open symposium <em>Questioning Questions in Language, Culture and Cognition</em>, it turned out that there was a widespread interest within the international linguistic research community. At the symposium held at Roskilde University on November 15, 2018, 14 papers were presented, and following the research group’s call for papers for a special issue, several new proposals came along - each contributing to the classification, analysis and characteriation of questions. This indicates not only that there is a lively interest in questions, but also that there is a need to discuss and add to the existing classifications, analyses and characterisations of questions. In this issue we have gathered the 11 most relevant contributions.</p> 2020-07-09T14:06:55+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Expanding Searle’s analysis of interrogative speech acts: A systematic classification based on preparatory conditions 2020-10-30T06:29:57+01:00 Niels Møller Nielsen <p>In John Searle’s original taxonomy of types of illocutionary acts (Searle 1969) he points out that some kinds of illocutionary acts are special cases of other kinds, giving the example that questions are in fact special cases of requests. In that way, a ‘real question’ is a request for information that the sender does not already possess, whereas an ‘exam question’ is a request for information that the sender has already access to. This paper takes this rudimentary analysis some steps further and attempts a taxonomy of interrogative speech acts based on sets of more specific preparatory conditions such as <em>sender expects / does not expect reply</em> and <em>sender has access to / does not have access to the requested information</em>. The paper will show that a system of these sets of preparatory conditions can generate illocutionary definitions of a range of different types of interrogative speech acts.</p> 2020-07-09T14:13:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The intentionality of questions – a critique of Searle’s analysis of speech acts 2020-10-30T06:29:44+01:00 Simon Borchmann <p>Searle’s analysis and classification of speech acts entails that one of the two components of a speech act is a proposition. The first part of the article demonstrates that the analysis and classification is misleading when applied to three authentic examples of questions embedded in an everyday activity. Considerations concerning the situations that give rise to the questions suggest that the discrepancy is due to assumptions about intentionality and perception implied by the proposition-based analysis and classification of speech acts. In the second part of the article, Searle’s theory of intentionality and perception is compared with cognitive ethnographic observations of the situations that give rise to the three questions. The comparison shows that Searle’s theory of intentionality and perception is insufficiently informative and partly misleading as regards human intentionality and perception in the performance of an everyday activity. The claim is that the assumptions about intentionality and perception that form the basis of the proposition-based analysis and classification of speech acts are insufficient as a basis for a general theory of speech acts.</p> 2020-07-09T14:21:21+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Deconstructing Questions: Reanalyzing a heterogenous class of speech acts via commitment and engagement 2020-10-30T06:29:31+01:00 Johannes M. Heim Martina E. Wiltschko <p>Direct and indirect characterizations of the relation between clause type (syntactic form) and speech act (pragmatic function) are problematic because they map oversimplified forms onto decomposable functions. We propose an alternative account of questions by abandoning any (in)direct link to their clause type and by decomposing speech acts into two variables encoding propositional attitudes. One variable captures the speaker’s commitment to an utterance, another their expectation toward the addressee’s engagement. We couch this proposal in a syntactic framework that relies on two projections dedicated to managing common ground (GroundP) and managing turn-taking (ResponseP), respectively. Empirical evidence comes from the conversational properties of sentence-final intonation in English and sentence-peripheral particles that serve to manage the common ground.</p> 2020-07-09T14:27:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## LEAN diversity management in practice: The multi-functionality of questions as a resource to ensure understanding, participation and procedural compliance in a diverse workplace 2020-10-30T06:29:19+01:00 Louise Tranekjær <p>This paper explores the way that team managers in an industrial laundry facility use questions in weekly whiteboard meetings to simultaneously manage the diversity and potential language difficulties of the employees and the LEAN based management goals of improved production through employee participation. The paper argues that the multi-functionality of questions provides a resource for balancing for the competing goals of securing intersubjectivity and progressivity in the brief and yet essential meetings, and that this management has both affective and epistemic dimensions.</p> 2020-07-09T14:32:13+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Recipient Questions in Establishing Intersubjectivity and Progressing a Story in Aided Communication 2020-10-30T06:29:06+01:00 Patricia Mayes Mary Clinkenbeard <p>We report on a case study involving two participants: One participant has a communication disability and uses a high-tech, electronic device to speak, and the other is nondisabled. Their interaction differs from typical, everyday conversation because some linguistic resources are unavailable in aided speech, resulting in frequent repair sequences and slower progression. The analysis shows that when the aided speaker initiates an extended telling, the recipient uses questions to do repair-related actions as well as actions that could progress the story. Thus, this context affords the opportunity to investigate how the recipient’s projections interact with intersubjectivity and progressivity.</p> 2020-07-09T14:37:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wh-headlines in German. What they communicate and whether they optimize relevance 2020-10-30T06:28:53+01:00 Rita Finkbeiner <p>This paper is about a particular wh-clause type in German that is restricted in its usage to headlines. This clause type, exemplified by the newspaper headline <em>Wie Kassen an Kranken verdienen</em> (‘How health insurance companies make money on sick people’), formally looks like an embedded interrogative wh-clause, but is used independently as a headline with a particular, non-questioning illocution. The main question raised in this paper is how the illocution of wh-headlines is to be specified, and how it can be accounted for. The paper suggests an analysis of wh-headlines as both backward- and forward-referring means that are very well-suited to fulfill the two main functions of headlines, namely, to arouse the reader’s interest and to direct the reader’s attention to the subsequent text. The complex illocution of wh-headlines is derived from an interaction between formal properties of the clause type and contextual restrictions. In the final section of the paper, the more general question is raised whether wh-headlines can be regarded as relevance optimizers, as has been suggested for other kinds of newspaper headlines. This question is discussed based on a comparison between wh-headlines, assertive headlines and click baits.</p> 2020-07-09T14:44:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “It was probably that guy?” – The functions of reconstructive speech acts in investigative training interviews 2020-10-30T06:28:40+01:00 Winnie Collin <p>This paper explores the pragmatic and interactional functions of reconstructive speech acts in mock police interviews, based on a model of argumentative dialogue. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the reconstructions apparently contribute to both the interaction between the police officer and the mock suspect in the interview activity and to the interaction in the training activity, i.e. between the participants attending the training course. Drawing on functional pragmatics and grammar, the analysis seeks to examine how reconstructions on the one hand function in the socially non-cooperative interaction in the mock interview, questioning the truth value of propositions and trustworthiness of the suspect, and, on the other hand seem to fulfil a supportive purpose in the training activity.</p> 2020-07-09T14:49:25+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding questions and answers in context: An argument for multi-channel analysis 2020-10-30T06:28:27+01:00 Dawn Archer <p>Currently, understanding what questions and answers mean in context equates to accounting for the questioner’s role as well as what they expect to (versus) achieve, the position as well as form/function of their question(s) within the interaction: and, if spoken, their delivery, as well as whether a response is given, what type, how, etc. This paper advocates for a further widening of the linguistic analytical lens beyond traditional syntactic/pragmatic criteria so that we might account, in turn, for participants’ facial expressions, body movements and gestures as they deliver their questions and/or respond to others. The paper argues this is particularly pertinent when negotiating meaning generally and crucial when seeking to understand potentially deceptive and/or evasive moves on the part of participants.&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-09T14:54:44+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How to investigate the local and global change potential of questioning sequences in executive coaching? A call for interdisciplinary research 2020-10-30T06:28:14+01:00 Eva-Maria Graf Frédérick Dionne Thomas Spranz-Fogasy <p>Coaching outcome research convincingly argues that coaching is effective and facilitates &nbsp;change in clients. While coaching practice literature depicts questions as key vehicle for such change, empirical findings as regards the local and global change potential of questions are so far largely missing in both (psychological) outcome research and (linguistic and psychological) process research on coaching. The local change potential of questions refers to a turn-by-turn transformation as a result of their sequentiality, the global change potential is related to the power of questions to initiate, process and finalize established phases of change. This programmatic article on questions, or rather questioning sequences, in executive coaching pursues two goals: firstly, it takes stock of available insights into questions in coaching and advocates for Conversation Analysis as a fruitful methodological framework to assess the local change potential of questioning sequences. Secondly, it points to the limitations of a local turn-by-turn approach to unravel the overall change potential of questions and calls for an interdisciplinary approach to bring both local and global effectiveness into relation. Such an approach is premised on conversational sequentiality and psychological theories of change and facilitates research on questioning sequences as both local and global agents of change across the continuum of coaching sessions. We present the TSPP Model as a first result of such an interdisciplinary cooperation.</p> 2020-07-09T15:01:39+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A question of control? Forms and functions of courtroom questioning in two different adversarial trial systems 2020-10-30T06:28:02+01:00 Sune Sønderberg Mortensen <p>This paper compares the questioning of witnesses and defendants in American and Danish courtroom interaction on the basis of one American and three Danish criminal trials. A total of 780 questions are analysed in terms of their morphosyntactic properties as well as speech act functions. Following a general discussion of courtroom questioning and the notions of coercion and control, as well as an outline of legal cultural differences and similarities between American and Danish courtroom interaction, a coding system is developed for the linguistic comparison, and initial quantitative results of the comparison are discussed. Particular attention is given to declarative questions and the ‘communicative’ speech act function, as the linguistic and interactional features of these are shown to be explored in quite different ways in accordance with the legal and cultural contexts in which the courtroom questioning takes place.</p> 2020-07-09T15:06:39+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Questioning questions in psychotherapeutic practice: The dialogical dynamics of change in therapy through clients questioning therapists 2020-10-30T06:27:49+01:00 Line Brink Worsøe Thomas Wiben Jensen <p>The focus of this study is a particular type of questioning in psychotherapy: The unusual, yet recurrent, phenomenon of clients asking questions or making requests to the therapist and the way this alters the dialogical dynamics and therapeutic alliance between the two. Thus, we investigate how these types of question-answer cycles challenge the balance of the dialogical system of therapy including the normally accepted asymmetrical power relation between therapist and client. The analysis is informed by an ecological perspective which views the dialogical collaboration of therapist and client as forming a distributed cognitive system. The study shows how disaffiliation to questioning cycles on one hand stress the dialogical system through changing the language game, yet on the other hand, also entertain a subtle form of cooperativeness. The questioning cycles inform the dyadic system of therapist and client so that precautions can be made in order to secure the therapeutic alliance.</p> 2020-07-09T15:12:16+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##