Religionsvidenskabeligt Tidsskrift https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt <p>Religionsvidenskabeligt Tidsskrift (RvT) publicerer fagfællebedømt forskning og forskningsbaseret formidling af religionsvidenskab og dens mange delvidenskaber -- såsom religionshistorie, religiionssociologi, religionspsykologi, religionsantropologi og religionsfilosofi. Bidrag kan have hovedvægten i en bestemt empiri eller have et teoretisk sigte.</p> da-DK <p>Alt publiceret materiale i RvT fra og med nr. 75 (2023) er underlagt en CC BY 4.0 licens, og forfatteren har ophavsretten dertil.</p> <p>Forfatteren og RvT deler ophavsretten til materiale publiceret inden nr. 75</p> hj@cas.au.dk (Hans J. Lundager Jensen) hj@cas.au.dk (Hans J. Lundager Jensen) Sun, 12 May 2024 22:13:44 +0200 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 I begyndelsen var festen? https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145257 <p>ENGLISH SUMMARY: The article discusses the concept of feasts as a possible important religio-phenomenological category. Against archaeological-anthropological theorizing according to which feasts are essentially battlegrounds for status competition (Hayden, Dietler), I argue (with Weismantel, Etzioni, Nahum-Claudel) for a more basic understanding of feasts as joyful gatherings of persons not normally together or eating and drinking together. Feast in this understanding is practically identical with Durkheim’s vision of social gatherings and the emergence of religion (and thereby culture) in outbursts of collective effervescence. Underneath actual religious rituals and more or less non-religious feasts (called ‘Feast<sup>1</sup>’) is a more fundamental gathering of which both rituals and normal feasts (called ‘Feast<sup>2</sup>’) are transformations. The article includes two narrative examples from the Hebrew Bible: Hannah and the sacrifice in Shilo (1 Samuel 1) and Ezra’s reading of the law of Moses (Nehemiah 8) and some remarks on feasting in early Christianity.</p> <p>DANSK RESUME: Artiklen her diskuterer begrebet ‘fest’ som en mulig central religionsfænomenologisk kategori. Imod arkæologisk-antropologiske teorier om fester som essentielt kamppladser for social status (Hayden, Dietler) argumenterer jeg (med Weismantel, Etzioni, Nahum-Claudel) for en mere basal forståelse af fester som muntre forsamlinger af personer der i dagligdagen ikke er sammen og ikke spiser og drikker sammen. I denne forstand ligger ‘fest’ nær Durkheims forståelse af religionens (og kulturens) oprindelse i forsamlingers spontane udbrud af effervescens. Under både etablerede religiøse ritualer og mere-eller-mindre ikke-religiøse fester ligger således en mere fundamental fest (kaldet ‘Fest<sup>1</sup>’), der kan transformeres og manifesteres som ritual eller som fest (kaldet ‘Fest<sup>2</sup>’). Artiklen afrundes af to eksempler på fester fra Det Gamle Testamente: fortællingen om Hanna og offeret i Shilo (1 Samuels Bog 1) og Ezras oplæsning af Moses’ lov (Nehemias 8) samt bemærkninger om fester i tidlig kristendom.</p> Hans J. Lundager Jensen Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145257 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Festers frygtforløsende funktion i jødisk religion https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145258 <p>ENGLISH SUMMARY: To move beyond the finding that tightly regulated rituals and affective feasts seem to occur in pairs, this article asks why this is so. The article draws on Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s understanding of cultural phenomena, including religion, as a protection against chaos, and on Peter A. Levine’s understanding of adequate responses to potentially traumatising experiences to prevent emotional blockage. It analyses four calendar feasts in Jewish religion: the Feast of Weeks, the Feast of Tabernacles, Passover, and Purim, based on the thesis that calendar feasts have evolved to facilitate collective ‘shake-and-run’-reactions when people have had reason to ‘freeze’ in response to potentially chaotic and life-threatening situations during the year, albeit in changing contexts. Concretely, the article asks, what anxiety relief do these four calendar feasts offer in different phases of Israelite-Jewish history of religion?</p> <p>DANSK RESUME: For at nå dybere end den erkendelse, at stramt regulerede ritualer og affektive fester synes at optræde i par, spørger denne artikel ind til, hvorfor det forholder sig således. Perspektiver til forklaring hentes fra Gilles Deleuze og Félix Guattaris forståelse af kulturelle fænomener, herunder religion, som et værn mod kaos og Peter A. Levines forståelse af ‘ryst-og-løb’-handlinger som nødvendige reaktioner på potentielt traumatiserende oplevelser, hvis blokeringer skal undgås. Artiklen undersøger fire kalenderritualer i jødisk religion: ugefesten, løvhyttefesten, påske og purim, ud fra den tese, at kalenderfester har udviklet sig til at facilitere kollektive ‘ryst-og-løb’-reaktioner, når mennesker har haft grund til at ‘fryse’ som reaktion på potentielt kaotiske og livstruende situationer i årets løb, om end i skiftende kontekster. Konkret spørges der til, hvilken frygtforløsning disse fire kalenderfester tilbyder i forskellige faser af israelitisk-jødisk religionshistorie?</p> Marianne Schleicher Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145258 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Holī og Dīvalī – to hindufester https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145259 <p>English abstract: In this article, I will demonstrate how feasts and festivals serve as effective analytical tools to comprehend the diversity within the Hindu tradition. I will use the two festivals: Holī and Dīvalī as examples. Additionally, I aim to explore whether the historical anchors of a festival, or multiple anchors, have significance for the interpretative potential associated with the festival today. I will particularly focus on whether the festival is strongly or weakly tied to one or more myths and whether it has a tribal/early archaic or archaic origin. I will also investigate if certain festivals within the Hindu tradition seem more adaptable to new contexts outside of India than other.</p> <p>Dansk resume: I denne artikel vil jeg demonstrere, hvordan fester og festivaler er et godt analyseredskab til at forstå den hinduistiske tradition i sin mangfoldighed, men også til at undersøge, om festens historiske forankringspunkt eller forankringspunkter har betydning for det fortolkningspotentiale, man kan knytte til festen i dag. Her vil jeg særligt tage udgangspunkt i de to fester Holī og Dīvalī. Et analytisk&nbsp; omdrejningspunkt er, om festen knytter sig stærkt eller svagt til en eller flere myter, og om den har et tribalt/tidlig arkaisk eller et arkaisk ophav. Jeg vil også undersøge om visse fester inden for den hinduistiske er mere adaptiv til nye sammenhænge uden for Indien end andre.</p> <p>Keywords: Holī; Divāli; adaption; mythological strong, mythological weak</p> Marianne Qvortrup Fibiger Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145259 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Helte og kujoner til jættegilder https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145219 <p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between Old Norse feasts and gender. Following Michael Dietler’s claim that examinations of gender offer insights into the practices of feasts of a given culture and vice versa, I analyse two Old Norse myths that both depict the god Thor attending feasts hosted by giants. I argue that Old Norse feasts were domains where relations were regulated and maintained, and where everyday norms were transgressed in order to strengthen and maintain society. In both myths, masculinities in particular are challenged and transformed. I apply gender theories by R. W. Connell and Judith Butler to analyse how transformations of masculinity provide insights into the established gender order of Old Norse society.</p> <p>DANSK RESUMÉ: Formålet med denne artikel er at undersøge forholdet mellem norrøne fester og køn. Inspireret af Michael Dietlers påstand om at studier af kønsforestillinger tilbyder indsigter i en given kulturs festpraksisser og omvendt, analyserer jeg to norrøne myter om guden Thor der indebærer hans deltagelse i jættefester. Jeg argumenterer for at norrøne fester var domæner hvor dominans blev reguleret og opretholdt, og hvor hverdagens normer blev overskredet for at styrke og opretholde samfundet. I begge myter bliver især maskuliniteter udfordret og transformeret ved festerne. Jeg anvender kønsteorier af R. W. Connell og Judith Butler i min analyse af hvordan transformationer af maskulinitet tilbyder indsigt i den etablerede kønsorden i det norrøne samfund.</p> Emma C. Sørlie Jørgensen Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145219 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 At løfte himlen, forene sig med solen og sætte pottemagerskiven i gang https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145261 <p>SUMMARY: Rituals are often redundant sequences repeating important themes, e.g. a key mythological event, very much as a refrain. This mythological redundancy may, however, also consist in analogous, but narratively unconnected mythical events, e.g. killing a dragon – stabilizing the earth – civilizing the country. A good example of this transmythological redundancy is an ancient Egyptian festival of Khnum in Esna. All festivals are, with an expression borrowed from C.J Bleeker, ‘enactments of religious renewal.’ In the Esna festival three mythological motifs are juxtaposed and united to perform this renewal: the creative act of Shu, who lifted the sky from the earth, Khnum’s creation of all beings on his throwing table, and the mythological, exemplar birth of the royal child. When Khnum is eventually carried in procession outside the temple and the festival becomes public, there is a ritual sequence to ‘establish the potter’s wheel in the belly of all females.’ The universal (transmythologically expressed) idea of creation and renewal is thus given specific significance in human and animal reproduction, and the festival ends in informal celebration. Torches are kept burning till dawn.</p> <p>RESUMÉ: Ritualer indeholder ofte gentagelser af vigtige temaer, fx en mytologisk begivenhed, omtrent som et omkvæd i en sang. En sådan mytologisk redundans kan imidlertid også bestå i en kæde af analoge, men narrativt uforbundne mytiske begivenheder, fx dragedrab – stabilisering af jorden – civilisering af landet. Et godt eksempel på en sådan transmytologisk redundans er en gammel ægyptisk fest for Khnum i Esna. Alle fester er, med C.J. Bleekers udtryk, ‘enactments of religious renewal’. Ved festen i Esna sammenstilles tre mytologiske motiver for at gennemføre fornyelsen: Shus skabende handling, hvor han løftede himlen op fra jorden, Khnums skabelse af alle væsener på sin pottemagerskive og kongebarnets mytologiske, forbilledlige fødsel. Når Khnum til sidst bæres i procession uden for templet og festen bliver offentlig, optræder der en rituel sekvens der skal ‘anbringe pottemagerskiven i alle hun-væseners mave.’ Den universelle (transmytologisk udtrykte) skabelses- og fornyelsestanke gives altså sin specifikke betydning i menneskers og dyrs reproduktion, og festen munder ud i uformel festivitas i fakkelskær, lige til den lyse morgen.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Ritual drama, transmythological redundancy, festivals, Esna</p> Jørgen Podemann Sørensen Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145261 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Festlarm og Stilhed https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145263 <p>SUMMARY: In Vilhelm Grønbech’s The Culture of the Teutons (1931), there was a chapter on ‘The Creative Festival’, originally the final chapter in the first Danish edition and entitled ‘Festal silence and festal noise’. To the English edition was finally added an ‘Essay on ritual drama,’ often considered the very foundation of the traditionally strong interest in the myth-ritual relationship among Danish historians of religions. Grønbech did not pretend to have discovered the myth-ritual relationship but admitted inspiration primarily from American ethnography. This paper explores the role of the myth-ritual theme at the International Congress of Anthropology in Chicago on the occasion of the World’s Columbian Exhibition in 1893, especially a methodologically remarkable paper by W.W. Newell, “Ritual regarded as the dramatization of myths,” containing in nuce many of the most important insights in ritual drama, that later acquired more substance through the studies of Vilh. Grønbech and others.</p> <p>RESUMÉ: Vilh. Grønbechs Vor Folkeæt I Oldtiden I-IV (1909-12) mundede ud i kapitlet “Feststilhed og Festlarm.” I den engelske udgave (1931) blev det lidt forøget og fik titlen “The Creative Festival”, og der tilføjedes det berømte “Essay on Ritual Drama”, der for mange stod som selve grundlæggelsen af den stærke danske religionshistoriske interesse for kult-myte-forholdet. Grønbech foregav ikke at være den, der havde opdaget dette forhold, men vedgik en inspiration især fra amerikansk etnografi. Denne artikel undersøger temaet myte-ritual, og den rolle det spillede ved den internationale antropologiske kongres i forbindelse med den store verdensudstilling i Chicago i 1893, navnlig W.W. Newells metodologisk bemærkelsesværdige bidrag “Ritual regarded as the dramatization of myths”, der in nuce allerede rummer mange af de vigtigste af de indsigter i kultdramaet, der sidenhen fik tilført mere substans ved Vilh. Grønbechs og andres studier.</p> Jørgen Podemann Sørensen Copyright (c) 2024 Forfatter(ne) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://tidsskrift.dk/rvt/article/view/145263 Sun, 12 May 2024 00:00:00 +0200