Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning da-DK rambam.tidsskrift@gmail.com (Cecilie Speggers Schrøder Simonsen) bjarkef@hotmail.com (Bjarke Følner) Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Forord https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127710 <p>Forord</p> Cecilie Speggers Schrøder Simonsen Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127710 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Jødefejder 1813-1820 https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127711 <p>On September 3rd, 1819, there were posters and flyers in the streets of Copenhagen urging people to go up against Jews. On the following day there were serious riots on the city square, Amagertorv, where upper-class Jewish shops were situated. Hundreds of rioters smashed Jewish shops and ran up and down the streets smashing windows of Jewish apartments. The police arrived but they gave up quelling the riots and called for soldiers who were unsuccessful in helping the situation. The riots continued the day after and rioters included sailors, apprentices, workers as well as upper-class people according to the police. The king and his government now interfered as the posters circulating in the city featured critical remarks about the king who was referred to as “The King of the Jews”. Military was called and ordered to use firearms if necessary. A curfew at night was announced and a commission court was assembled. The commission court had the authority to impose death sentences, but they were never used. The city was in a state of emergency. In the following days the riots continued with violent clashes. Military records inform us that it was necessary for the military to interfere with their swords raised in order to spread the groups. Many were wounded. A few Jews were assaulted, but there were no deaths. What is surprising is that riots and assaults on Jews continued in 1820. In January, people attacked the finance house Meyer&amp;Trier who had provided the Danish state with major loans before the financial crash and state bankruptcy of 1813. Police records testify that riots continued far into the year of 1820 with attacks on Jewish houses. It was the most serious popular uprising and violent ethnical conflict that Denmark had seen. But there was also a political conflict concerning absolutism. Authorities searched for political activists involved in the conflict, but no one was found. They suspected a political group that began with the democratic Dr. Dampe and his ideological companion Blok Tøxen. Recent research shows that this group had expressed hatred against Jews. There are various answers to the question of why the riots started. The adversities of 1813 known as The Literary Jewish Conflict provide an insight. Several Christians and Jews argued over whether or not Jews could be accepted in a modern cultural society. The issue was also whether Denmark was to be regarded as a tolerant progress-oriented society or a society with prevailing Christian beliefs. The debate gave voice to traditional Christian Jew hatred and a new form of hatred against the Jews in which they were accused of being greedy people incapable of becoming useful citizens. The prejudice against Jews was not racism, a term that occurred at the end of the 19th century, but ethnic prejudice where Jews were attributed special negative character traits. The result was a traumatized Jewish people. Many of them converted to Christianity after 1819. The head of the Jewish congregation, Mendel Levin Nathanson, chose conversion for all eight of his children. Two of them became priests. The conflict of 1813 and the Jewish riots are some of the most important historical events in Denmark. They were violent and bloody but historians and writers have downplayed them, perhaps because they wanted to paint a nicer picture of Denmark.</p> Bent Blüdnikow Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127711 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Politirapporter om jødeforfølgelser 1819-1820 og politiske frihedskrav https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127712 <p>Riots against Jews took place in September 1819 in Copenhagen and some provincial towns, e.g. Elsinore and Odense. The Government did not succeed in finding the people who were responsible, nor were the real causes of the riots discovered. New source material has been found in police reports and other documents belonging to A.S. Ørsted, the deputy of the Danish Chancellery. These police reports substantiate that the persecution of the Jews in Copenhagen did not end in January 1820 as has generally been presumed by historical research. On the contrary, the disturbances continued for almost the rest of the year 1820. During September 1820 the riots once again took a serious turn. Police reports described disturbances around Jewish homes and shops where windows were broken. The background for the riots was the Government’s handling of the country’s poor financial situation. This was expressed in handbills directed against the Jews as well as in political proclamations announced by the author J.K. Blok Tøxen and Doctor of Philosophy J.J. Dampe. The Government saw a connection between these two “movements”, i.e. the riots against the Jews and the circle around Doctor Dampe. Frederik J. Kaas, the president of the King’s Cabinet, feared that the new disturbances could be “[a]n introduction to the big scene”, i.e. the big riot against Absolutist governmental form. A special court of justice sentenced Doctor Dampe to death. It was a warning to all troublemakers.</p> Jens Rasmussen Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127712 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Goldschmidt - mellem dansk og jødisk https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127713 <p>Danish-Jewish Meïr Aron Goldschmidt (1819-1887) was one of the outstanding novelists and short story writers of his time. Romanticism was on the wane and a realism dealing with the problems of modern life was looming on the horizon. In some ways, Goldschmidt was a figure between the times, but in one important respect he dealt with a major contemporary issue, as he was the first significant writer who discussed the Jews’ often precarious situation in the mid-nineteenth century. It has been said that the central problem of his life was the struggle to belong. His first novel, <em>En J</em><em>ø</em><em>de </em>(<em>A Jew</em>) (1845), was a deeply pessimistic tale of the young Jew Jacob Bendixen who tries to reconcile Danish and Jewish culture, but in vain. After his failed engagement to the young Christian girl Thora Fangel, he leaves Denmark in order to join the social revolutions taking place throughout Europe at the time. His return to Denmark brings nothing but disappointment and misery, and Jacob becomes a pawnbroker in order to seek revenge over his enemies. The fundamental conflict between Jewish and Danish was an important motive in most of Goldschmidt’s work, but the pessimistic attitude was softened in some ways, and his late short stories in particular depict various types from the Jewish community with empathy and humor. The stories in his volume of tales from around the world – <em>Kj</em><em>æ</em><em>rlighedshistorier fra mange Lande </em>(<em>Love stories from many countries</em>) (1867) – deserve to be better known. Here Goldschmidt tries to show how differently and yet similarly human beings cope with fundamental feelings of love, jealousy, infatuation, resignation. Appropriately, the setting of this telling of tales from many parts of the world is the Paris World Exposition in 1867. This is the place where countries and cultures meet, and where people get acquainted with each other. Goldschmidt collected this volume of stories, all written by himself, about identity, and about the ways we human beings get to know ourselves when we are exposed to other cultures. An inexhaustible collection indeed, written by a man who had matured in many ways since the depression and doom of the first novel.</p> Søren Schou Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127713 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Meïr Aron Goldschmidts jødiske forfatterskab https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127714 <p>Informed by David Nirenberg’s <em>Anti-Judaism: A Western Tradition </em>(2013), the article demonstrates how nineteenth-century Danish Jewish writers such as Georg Brandes and Meïr Aron Goldschmidt addressed political, social, and cultural issues by using the contemporary discourse about Jews and Judaism. The article elaborates on the contrasts between Brandes and Goldschmidt’s Jewish identities and delineates how Baruch de Spinoza served as a model of the independent Jewish intellectual. The article argues that Goldschmidt is one of the first multilingual minority writers in Danish literature. In his literary work, Goldschmidt utilizes his double vision as a Jew and a Dane to create radically new narrative, thematic, and stylistic features. In his first novel, <em>A Jew </em>(1845), Goldschmidt problematizes his Jewish life experience by including more than 200 terms in Yiddish and Hebrew and explaining them in footnotes. Goldschmidt’s Jewish work highlights the complex dynamic between minority and majority in Danish society. This makes it a valuable contribution to the current Danish public discourse about emigrants and refugees.</p> Jan Schwarz Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127714 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Et indblik - jødiske slægter i danske arkivalier fra 1760 til 1840 https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127715 <p>The Danish National Archives and the Copenhagen City Archives contain more than 600 pages with more than 7,000 names of Jewish inhabitants for the period 1780-1840. These records made by The Danish Police and the Municipal Corporation of Copenhagen are magnificent sources for Jewish genealogy. These records are very good supplements to other sources like church books, census, and cemetery information. This information will gradually be incorporated in the Danish-Jewish Genealogical Database.</p> Otto Bendixen Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127715 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 De sefardiske slægter Italiaender og Moresco i Holland og Danmark https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127716 <p>The first persons with the names Italiaender and Moresco both came to Amsterdam from Venice. Abraham Levy Vitoria, called Italiaender, came to Amsterdam probably around 1660, whereas the first documentation of a person with the last name Moresco is from 1708, from a wedding between Obadia Moresco and Sara Orobuena Isaac Granada. Abraham Italiaender’s original family name Vitoria indicates that the family derives from Vitoria, a town in northern Spain, whereas Moresco is a town in Lombardia in Italy. Abraham Italiaender founded a flourishing tobacco company, not only based on imported tobacco but also on tobacco grown in Holland. He had ten children with two wives. Two sons from the first marriage moved to Nijkerk in 1709, and two other sons likewise from the first marriage moved to Amersfoort in 1711. Both towns were centers for locally produced tobacco. It was Abraham’s grandchild, Jacob Benjamin Italiaender, who moved to Copenhagen after the company “Jakob Italiaender Benjamin &amp; Gebroeder” had been granted an allowance in 1743 to found a tobacco company both in Aalborg (in Jutland) and in Christianshavn, a part of Copenhagen. In Christianshavn the company acquired a house built in 1626 – one of the oldest houses in Copenhagen – in which the family lived for four generations and in which, or more likely in a smaller house in the backyard, the tobacco spinning took place. The family also founded a Portuguese-Jewish community, a synagogue was organized in the house in the backyard. In Amsterdam several marriages between the Italiaenders and the Morescos took place in the 18th century, but in Copenhagen the first one took place in 1827 between Maximilian Moresco, born 1791 in the Hague, and Adelaide Italiaender, born 1802 in Copenhagen. Maximilian – originally Moses – was educated as a dentist in Kiel. He was a successful dentist and became a dentist for the royal court. Maximilian and Adelaide were second-grade cousins. Marriages between cousins were rather common in the Italiaender family, most likely with the purpose to keep the family values within the family. Maximilian and Adelaide had five children. One died young. Two girls – one year after their father’s death in 1846 – converted to Christianity: according to the English magazine “Children’s Jewish Advocate” it was due to mission from a Jewish convertite, Johan Christian Moritz. In 1856, the oldest son Jacob Heinrich founded a company, first selling haute couture to ladies, but later he took up production of ladies’ clothes on a larger scale, using the new wonder of the time, sewing machines. The Moresco company became the largest company producing ladies’ clothes in the Nordic countries. Jacob Heinrich built a large villa in a northern suburb of Copenhagen, and having no wife or children, he named it “Villa Adelaide” after his mother. After his death in 1906, his nephew Carl Moresco took over the villa as well as the factory. After Carl’s death in 1940 the villa was sold to the municipality of Gentofte which used the villa after the war had ended as a camp for Jewish refugees returning from Sweden and having no accommodation.</p> Allan Falk Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127716 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Heckscher - en familiesaga https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127717 <p>In old family papers inherited from her mother the author finds a simple notebook entitled <em>Livserindringer</em>, life memories, written by her great grandfather Wiliam Heckscher – a broker at the Copenhagen stock exchange <em>B</em><em>ø</em><em>rsen</em>. The writing in the notebook, begun in March 1922, was meant to become a book for Wiliam’s children and even later generations. But while Wiliam goes into details about his own birth and childhood telling about his parents and grandparents, siblings and in-laws he gets disturbed and never finishes the full memoir. In late 1919 Wiliam’s youngest child, the son Knud, a 25-year-old unemployed engineer has left for Bangkok, where he works for Siam Electricity Company. In March 1922 Knud catches both malaria and typhoid fever and is close to dying. In the family papers, the author finds all the letters written back and forth between Knud in Bangkok and his parents in Copenhagen. This enables her to intertwine the ‘then’ – Wiliam’s memories – with the ‘now’ – Knud’s troubles in Siam and his parents’ desperate worries and plea for him to come home. The memoir and letters together present Jewish life in Denmark in the years of Wiliam’s childhood – late 19th century – and the time of writing in the early 20th century.</p> Hanne Foighel Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127717 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Nye erkendelser vedrørende matematikeren Georg Cantors afstamning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127718 <p>Until today the names of the grandparents on father’s side of the famous mathematician Georg Cantor – the founder of the “set theory” – have been unknown. Despite information in letters from Georg Cantor to friends that his father Georg Woldemar Cantor was born in Copenhagen to Jewish parents that information was disputed in a responsum from the leading Danish genealogist Theodor Hauch-Fausbøll in 1937, stating that his grandparents were not Jewish. In later biographies that opinion has prevailed although today it must be obvious to everybody that the responsum was made at a time when it was a matter of life and death for the descendants – who assumedly had required this responsum – to be able to produce evidence that they did not have Jewish roots. On the basis of material from Danish Archives the German mathematician Georg Singer has established beyond doubt that Georg Cantor’s father was indeed of Jewish origin, as claimed by Georg Cantor in his abovementioned letters. His original article in German was published in <em>MAAJAN </em>No. 4, August 2019, edited by “Die Schweizerische Vereinigung für Jüdische Genealogie”. The article in <em>Rambam </em>is an abbreviated translation hereof. Georg Woldemar Cantor was born in Copenhagen on May 6th, 1814, as Hirsch Cantor. His mother was Esther Abraham Meyer who was married for the second time to Lipman Cantor, the father of Georg Woldemar. Esther had been married before to Moses Levy who presumably had died in 1807, leaving Esther with seven children. She had remarried Lipman in 1811. Esther left Copenhagen around 1820 and went to Saint Petersburg where two brothers and a sister were living, bringing with her Hirsch and at least one child from her first marriage. That has been established by Galina Sinkevich in her newly published biography about Georg Cantor. In Saint Petersburg Hirsch was baptized and changed his given name to Georg Woldemar. He most likely stayed in Saint Petersburg and was raised by an aunt whereas his mother went back to Copenhagen – she died in 1840 in Aarhus. To the register of the probate court one of her sons from her first marriage, Joseph, declared that his mother from her second marriage had a son named Georg in Saint Petersburg. Likewise, the widower Lipman Cantor declared to the probate court register in Copenhagen that Esther with him had a son named Georg in Saint Petersburg.</p> Georg Singer; Allan Falk Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127718 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Den sidste entertainer - den første tid https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127719 <p>The historian Hannibal Munk tells the story of his own grandfather, the entertainer Simon Rosenbaum, who died in 2015 at the age of 89. The article concerns itself with Simon’s early struggles with getting his career as an entertainer going and staying on tracks. It takes its point of departure in 1945 when Simon, like many Danish Jews, returned to Copenhagen after two years in exile in Sweden. Simon, at that time an office clerk and translator at a merchant house, decided to make a career shift exchanging the outlook of a stable income with the uncertain existence as a piano player at Jewish family parties and at nightclubs in hopes of gaining a more permanent foothold in the entertainment business. Throughout the late 1940s Simon was repeatedly rejected until he in 1951 was accepted as a piano player for an amateur cabaret which finally gave him some early recognition. Fortunes did not change overnight and Simon had to face many long nights at work as a bar pianist and an accompanist for the growing network of professional artists that he came in contact with. Throughout the 1950s this work took him all over Denmark at different venues and even to Sweden and Israel. Finally, he got the chance to do his own permanent cabaret at the New Rosenborg restaurant in central Copenhagen. At the turn of the decade going into the happy 60s, Simon had at last settled down and started to gain the recognition as one of Denmark’s leading entertainers. The road getting there was usually not told by Simon himself. Telling about success is usually more compelling. Yet, the story about a successful career is only put into perspective when told side by side with the struggles getting to that point.</p> Hannibal Munk Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127719 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Interview med Hans Henrik Cohn https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127720 <p>Resumé</p> Bent Blüdnikow Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127720 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Skola i exil - några anteckningar om den danska skolan i Lund 1943-1945 https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127721 <p>Soon after most of the Danish Jews fled to Sweden, at the Jewish New Year in October 1943, a number of Danish schools were organized there. The most important one was set up in the little university town of Lund, and already by mid-November that school was fully operational. The Danish school in Lund was an unusual one. Both teachers and pupils (around 300) were Jews or members of the Danish resistance movement – or both. Many teachers were highly qualified, some well-known scholars and others excitingly progressive within their subjects. Some of them were not much older than the young people they were teaching. The social and economic backgrounds were highly varied, and few pupils knew each other before they had to flee. This was particularly true of the Jews who originated from all layers of society, most of whom would not have met or known each other had it not been because they found themselves in the same situation as refugees. The school was democratic in the sense that all teachers were paid equally, the pupils could influence daily life, and all classes were mixed. Textbooks were smuggled across by boat, 11,000 in all. But life was not without problems. Parents were often living elsewhere and so the school and its staff had to be important replacements. All shared the same fate of being refugees, and this was a difficult situation for many. Contact with local inhabitants was not without its frictions in spite of the warmth and generosity with which the Danes were being welcomed. The article is built on written testimonies, archival documents, and interviews with former teachers and pupils.</p> Anna Svenson Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127721 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Niels og Harald Bohr, forfølgelsen af jødiske videnskabsmænds og udviklingen af atombomben i USA https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127722 <p>After Hitler came to power in January 1933, the Nazis immediately purged Jewish mathematicians and physicists from German universities. The most severe actions were dismissals from the university in Göttingen, where the institutes of mathematics and physics virtually ceased to exist. The professors who lost their positions were the leading scholars in their fields, including no fewer than 20 Nobel laureates. Their colleagues in other countries established rescue committees. In Denmark the historian Aage Friis created a committee that rescued scholars, in which Niels Bohr was active. With the help from the Rockefeller Foundation (among others), he and his brother Harald provided a temporary safe haven for refugees in Denmark, before they found employment at American universities. Among the physicists they assisted were Hilde Levi, James Franck, George von Hevesy, Otto Robert Frisch, Lise Meitner, George Placzek, and Edward Teller, “the father of the hydrogen bomb”. In 1939, Niels Bohr discovered that fission related to the isotope Uranium-235, and later Otto Frisch and Rudolf Ernst Peierls calculated that it was possible to produce an atomic bomb, as it required only a couple of pounds of U-235. A large number of émigré scientists ended up in the research laboratory at Los Alamos, working on the atomic bomb. After Niels Bohr fled to Sweden in September 1943, he and his son Aage also went to Los Alamos in 1944. The scientists were against using the atomic bomb against Japan, but the decision to use the bomb against Hiroshima and Nagasaki was in the hands of the US government. Niels Bohr returned to Denmark on August 25, 1945. He died on November 18, 1962. In 1963 Heisenberg wrote in his obituary that “Bohr’s influence on physics and the physicists in our century is much greater than [that of] anybody else, including Albert Einstein.”</p> Jens Ulff-Møller Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127722 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Daniel Øhrstrøm: Manden, der ville reparere verden med musik https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127723 <p>Anmeldelse</p> Margit Warburg Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127723 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Marianne Miriam Cordosa Nagler: Noget om 200-års jødisk kunst og kultur https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127724 <p>Anmeldelse</p> Merete Næsbye Christensen Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127724 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Erik Henriques Bing: En afbrudt flugt til Sverige. Oktober 1943 https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127725 <p>Anmeldelse</p> Therkel Stræde Copyright (c) 2021 Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning https://tidsskrift.dk/rambam/article/view/127725 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200