Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning 2017-06-19T08:16:30+02:00 Cecilie Speggers Schrøder Simonsen Open Journal Systems Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning Forord 2017-06-19T08:16:28+02:00 Allan Falk Dette års udgave af Rambam har ikke noget tema, men viser mangfoldigheden af begrebet "Dansk Jødisk Historie". 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Onkel Bennys billeder 2017-06-19T08:16:28+02:00 Eva Sverdrup-Jensen <p>Uncle Benny's Paintings</p><p class="p1">Benny Cohn was born in 1896 into a Jewish/Christian family. He always wanted to be a painter and his family supported him. He graduated from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1917. He won a golden medal and a travel stipend in 1919. In 1920, Benny settled down in Paris, well known as a skilled painter – especially for his portraits and landscapes. He became a member of Salon d’ Automne in 1921. Benny spent the summers painting in Denmark, and most of his life he continued to exhibit at Charlottenborg in Copenhagen. The family was separated during the Second World War. Benny, his father and sister went to the USA in 1939; his brother Gerson and his children went to Sweden as refugees. Benny’s mother and another sister stayed in Denmark, where his mother died in 1944. In 1949, Benny decided to finally immigrate to the USA. In the USA, he settled down in Rhode Island and began painting colourful, abstract geometric paintings based on music. A dream he had had for a long time. In the USA, Benny used Benjamin Collin as his artist name. This was not so popular with his Jewish family! After his death in 1980, the family of Benny’s American sister inherited his American paintings; and his brother’s family inherited the Danish part. The paintings have been stored away and moved around for many, many years, but in 2014, Benny’s American niece Vikky Stenstream created an exhibition of his abstract paintings in Florida. At the same time, Benny’s Danish niece Eva Sverdrup-Jensen and grandniece Ditte Cohn started to register and renovate the huge Danish collection Benny had left with his brother when he emigrated for the USA. We hope to bring Uncle Benny’s fantastic collection of paintings to live, so that many people can enjoy and appreciate them!</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Palæstina tur/retur - dansk zionismes Palæstina-rødder 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Maja Gildin Zuckerman <p class="p1">A Roundtrip to Palestine – the Roots of Danish Zionism in Palestine</p><p class="p1">Louis Herman Frænkel (1868-1935) founded the Danish Zionist Association (Dansk Zionistforening) and chaired the association until the First World War. Through his Zionist leadership, his role as a community activist as well as a public commentator, Frænkel became known in both Denmark and abroad as the personification of (early) Danish Zionism. The article presents new research on the emergence of Danish Zionism, especially the relationship between what was considered “Jewish” and “Zionist” in this period. The focus here is on Frænkel’s journey to Palestine in the spring of 1897 and the implications the journey had on the dissemination of Zionism within the Danish-Jewish public sphere. The journey displays Zionist emergence as a process which was constantly expanding the existing and future opportunities for a Jewish home and community that extended far beyond the borders of the nation state.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tolerance i merkantilismens tidsalder - de religiøse fristeder i hertugdømmerne Slesvig og Holsten 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Frauke Dettmer <p class="p1">Tolerance in the Age of Mercantilism</p><p class="p1">In 1684, Jews were allowed to settle in the core regions of Denmark. But already in the beginning of the 17th century, cities in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, where the Danish king, through complex dynastic and historical circumstances, held the title of duke, were opened up for Jewish settlers – they were even invited to move there.</p><p class="p1">The settlement of Altona is well known and well researched, but the smaller settlements are equally interesting. Glückstadt on the Elbe was founded in 1616, and by 1620, Sephardi Jewish merchants, mainly from Hamburg and Amsterdam, were invited to settle and were given the same rights as their Christian counterparts. Despite some ups and down due to the Thirty Years War, Glückstadt flourished throughout the 1600s, but by the end of the century, the financial situation changed due to new patterns of commerce, and by 1733, the Sephardi community no longer existed. A small Ashkenazi settlement was also allowed, but with fewer privileges, and due to emancipation, it was gradually dissolved and had ceased to exist by the end of the 19th century.</p><p class="p1">In Friedrichstadt, founded in 1621, the preferred minority was originally the Protestant Remonstrants. Catholics, Quakers and others followed, and in 1675, the first Ashkenazi Jews are recorded to have settled in the town, and there is evidence that the different minorities (Christian and Jewish) cooperated in several areas. A new synagogue was built in 1847, but when emancipation reached the Duchies in the mid-1850s, the community dissolved due to emigration and emancipation. Rendsburg, part of the royal Danish realm already in the late 16th century and of strategic importance, was through the 17th century heavily fortified through the construction of the new fortress-cum-district Neuwerk. The new fortress was open to non-Protestant, but not Catholic, residents, who were given equal rights as their Lutheran counterparts – as long as their affluence was sufficient to ensure the ownership of a house and their religious practices were held out of the public eye. By the year 1700, the Ashkenazi community had their own burial ground in a nearby village, but services had to be held in private homes until the beginning of the 19th century. However, with the gradual emancipation in the 19th century (Denmark proper, 1814; the Duchies, 1854), and the Prussian victory in 1864, which made both Schleswig and Holstein part of the Germany-to be, Rendsburg-Neuwerk followed the destiny of the other communities.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Besøget i Theresienstadt den 2.-4. marts 2015 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Robert Fischermann <p class="p1">Visit in Theresienstadt</p><p class="p1">The background of the article is Robert Fischermann’s visit to Terezin (Theresienstadt) in the spring of 2015. The occasion was the recording of a TV programme with former Danish prisoners of the concentration camp who had been there as children, and the visit was preceded by the recording of interviews with the participants in their present homes. The author reflects on the relation between his experiences in 1943-1945 and his emotions on re-visiting Terezin 70 years later, and he also wants to express his gratitude towards the team for all their consideration concerning the interview and the visit to an emotionally very charged location.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Filmen Danske jøder i Hitlers fangenskab 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Carl Otto Dethlefsen <p><em>Goodbye Theresienstadt</em></p><p class="p1">The film <em>Goodbye Theresienstadt</em> was directed by Jonatan Jerichow and the author of this article. This is a short recap of the making of the film and afterthoughts regarding the organisation of the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. The successful escape of 5000 Danish Jews is a wellknown story, but 472 Danish Jews did not succeed in reaching the shores of neutral Sweden. They were arrested by the Gestapo and deported to Theresienstadt. In the film, we take six of the former inmates back to the camp in order to revisit some of the places of significance to them. Opposite other Jews in the camp, the Danes were allowed to receive parcels with food from home. This was their rescue, as one points out. The Danish Jews were eventually rescued by the so-called White Busses Campaign in the final days of WWII. It was a surprise to the film crew, that the six protagonists firmly stated at the end of their visit: ‘This is our goodbye to Theresienstadt’.</p><p class="p1">After the finishing of the film, the author has been thinking about the attempt by the Nazi bureaucrats to disguise the atrocities of the concentration camps. In Theresienstadt, they made renovations to impress a delegation from the International Red Cross, and they followed up by making a propaganda film. The self-governing system set up by the Germans played a major role in the beautification of the camp, and the chairman of the Elders overseeing this process was Benjamin Murmelstein. The French film director Claude Lanzmann made a film with Murmelstein in which he admitted his role; ‘I was caught between the hammer and the anvil,’ he states in the film. The author elaborates on the huge efforts by the Germans: first, to stage the Potemkin backdrop, and later, to destroy all the evidence by burning archives and throwing urns with victims’ ashes in the river. In Lanzmanns film, Mr. Murmelstein contradicts the famous quote from Hanna Arendt about the banality of Adolf Eichmann. ‘No, he was truly a demon,’ Murmelstein claims.</p><p class="p1">Personal accounts are important as an entrance to understanding the Holocaust, but future generations will not see and hear new eyewitnesses to the atrocities; therefore, testimonials from the last survivors are important to preserve on film. We are proud to have contributed to this with our two films, <em>October 43</em> and <em>Goodbye Theresienstadt</em>.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Din broders vogter 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Finn Schwarz <p>Your Brother's Guardian</p><p class="p1">In this article, one of the founders of the Danish Jewish security system explains the background for establishing the system in the beginning of the 1980s. The author follows the Jewish security system from the start up to the present, evaluating the different threats the last 30-35 years have presented. In the end of the article, the author comments on the terror attack in February 2015, which resulted in the killing of one of the guards.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vilje og antisemitisme i Lykke-Per 2017-06-19T08:16:29+02:00 Mads Tobias Bundsgaard <p class="p1">Antisemitism in <em>Lucky Per</em></p><p class="p1">This article examines Henrik Pontoppidan’s novel <em>Lucky Per</em> (Danish: Lykke-Per) by bringing two perspectives into focus: a Jewish and an anti-Semitic. The article begins with a count of all the animal characteristics that are used to describe the characters in the novel. The count makes it clear, that Jews and non-Jews are equally described as possessing these animal characteristics. The argument that the author is anti-Semite biased is in this way disproved. Further, the article documents the anti-Semitism that is present in the time-span of the novel (1864-1905) in Copenhagen and in Berlin. That is, the raw, the mild and the structural anti-Semitism. The novel is seen as a well-informed portrayal of the period. The clerical family of Sidenius and the secular Jewish family of Salomon are the main foci of the analysis; especially the son Per Sidenius (Lucky Per) and the daughter Jakobe. The anti-Semitism, as it is described in the novel, is compared to historical literature throughout the article. In relation to the time of publication of the novel, the article accepts the general racial attitudes of the population, and the progress of the Jewish character Jakobe is interpreted as a Nietzschean act of will. The article ends by concluding that the author of the novel wants to prove that, in spite of everything, a Jewish woman is capable of forcing her way through an anti-Semitic society.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Arthur Arnheim: Truet minoritet søger beskyttelse - Jødernes historie i Danmark 2017-06-19T08:16:30+02:00 Allan Falk <p>Anmeldelse af:</p><p>Arthur Arnheim: <em>Truet minoritet søger beskyttelse - Jødernes historie i Danmark.</em> Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2015.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Arthur Arnheim: At være jøde - essays om jøder og jødedom 2017-06-19T08:16:30+02:00 Karsten Christensen <p>Anmeldelse af:</p><p>Arthur Arnheim: <em>At være jøde - essays om jøder og jødedom.</em> Forlaget Goldberg &amp; Mor, 2015.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anna-Lise Bjerager: Det gælder dit liv. Bent Lexner om jødedom og eksistens 2017-06-19T08:16:30+02:00 Margit Warburg <p>Anmeldelse af:</p><p>Anna-Lise Bjerager: <em>Det gælder dit liv. Bent Lexner om jødedom og eksistens.</em> Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag, 2015.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jacob Halvas Bjerre: Udsigt til forfølgelse. Det danske udenrigsministerium og de europæiske jødeforfølgelser 1938-1945 2017-06-19T08:16:30+02:00 Karsten Christensen <p>Anmeldelse af:</p><p>Jacob Halvas Bjerre: <em>Udsigt til forfølgelse. Det danske udenrigsministerium og de europæiske jødeforfølgelser 1938-1945.</em> Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2015.</p> 2017-03-24T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##