Politica, Bind 20 (1988) 2


Peter Gundelach Conflicts in the Programmed Society

The structure of the Western societies is changing into a programmed society. This type of society is characterized by a large public sector and great impact of political decisions on citizens' standard of living in the broadest sense. For social conflicts this means that it is no longer sufficient to consider concerning economic factors which was the dominant conflict of the industrial, capitalist society. Besides the economic conflict two other conflicts are descussed: The conflict between state and the citizens and the conflict between men and women. The first takes at least two forms: Conflicts over collective consumption and conflicts between persons permanently on benefits and the state. Only the first of these has resulted in social movements. The conflict between and women has become important in the programmed society and the women's movement one of its important results. The development of new social conflicts means that sociology has to reconsider its traditional theories on the social order.

Jørgen Goul Andersen The Working Class in Post-Industrial (?) Society - Some Emperical Evidence

The working class is often claimed to become more politically divided and/or less progressive in a postindustrial society. However, a Danish survey conducted in 1985 as part of a cross-national class project initiated by Erik Olin Wright, lends very little empirical support to such visions. Firstly, there are almost zero correlations between introduction of new technology and various indicators the degree of industrialization of the labour process. Secondly, workers in technologically workplaces do not seem to be politically deviant, and political differences between skilled and unskilled workers have even evaporated in the 1970s and 1980s. The only significant source of »political deviance« (i.e., bourgeois deviance) within the working class is petty-bourgeois cross-pressure, not technological or economic factors. Thus the data indicate that the economic and technological development does not change the political role of the working class. Thirdly, even a change in the political agenda often associated with »postindustrialism« - i.e. the increased importance »new« issues such as environmentalism, peace, women's issues etc. - would not seem to change the political role of the working class dramatically, as the working class in Denmark takes a quite »progressive« stand on these issues.

Johan Fjord Jensen The Post-Political Challenge - A Copernican Turn

During discussions of the post-modern, claims have been made that we are approaching the postpolitical The author's reflections constitute an attitude to the question, i.e. to the relationship between the political and the post-political. The question whether our culture is to remain a democratic one is considered to be a main problem within our democratic culture - it is even consi-

dered to be the problem. The question is whether this culture has a free and binding formation of
opinion as its constant basis - a formation of opinion that is free of the power, and binding for the
power. This last point is considered a question of consensus.

Heine Andersen Practices of Publication and Forms of Organization in Danish Social Sciences

According to dominating theories in sociology of science the communication of new research findings an important institution in modern science, especially publication in journals, because this medium is most institutionalised. Data from approximately 30 Danish social science departments and approximately 50 departments 1982-84 concerning publication behaviour has been collected from the Annual Reports. Results are compared with two different theories from sociology science: 1) R. K. Merton's functionalist theory, based on th »CUDOS«-norms, implying a high degree of integration in the publication pattern, and 2) R. D. Whitley's theory, where it is argued that research in the social sciences is more fragmentated or partitioned than in the natural sciences. Results are most in accordance with Whitley's theory, and show furthermore an increasing plurality of audiences, and dependency on environment.

Erik Albæk Social Science Research and Politics - An Odd Couple?

In the 1960s when evaluation research came into fashion in the US, the assumption was that it would be used by public policy makers in an instrumental way for purposes of problem solving. This entails a linear, knowledge-driven model for research utilization in which a direct relationship exists between knowing and doing, i.e. knowledge leads to action. Policy making is assumed to consist discrete decisions made in accordance with the classical notion of rational, comprehensive action. It has, however, been exceedingly difficult to find empirical examples of linear, »instrumental« science research utilization. The picture that has emerged is, instead, that of more indirect diffuse kinds of »conceptual« or »enlightenment« utilization. This picture makes sense only if it is accepted that much more is involved in public policy making than classical rational action: science research may be used by other actors in the policy making process than top officials for other purposes than problem solving in the narrow technical sence.

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