Politica, Bind 26 (1994) 3


Jørgen Grønnegård Christensen Strategic Management in the Public Sector

The article develops several propositions concerning managerial behaviour at welfare providing institutions. These hypotheses are derived from rational institutionalism. They emphasize the strategic and opportunistic traits in managerial behaviour. It is argued that self-interested managers emphasise strategies wooing for the support of institutional staff and union representatives.

Hanne Foss Hansen The Govermamce of Public Institutions: Betweeb Uniform and Differentiated Thinking

Public organizations in central government are highly differentiated, a phenomenon badly described in the literature of public administration. In the article concepts describing this diffentiation are developed and tested. On the basis of empirical studies it is shown how both environmental relations in general and ministerial forms of control differ. Also it is discussed how these factors influence the possibilities of organizational leadership.

Torben Beck Jørgensen The Tasks of Public Organizations

Public organizations are characterized by a high goal complexity. In this article goal complexity is analyzed in terms of levels of goals. It is shown that public organizations produce outcomes on three different levels. These levels are conceptualized as user-adressed outputs, general outputs and public core values. It is argued that the single public organization has a simultaneous responsibility for all levels. General outputs are differentiated in societal goals, product profile, standard setting and capital accumulation. The types of outputs are finally related to the organizational process of production and strategic decision making.

Thomas Pallesen and Lars Dahl Pedersen Management Structure on Hospitals: From government initiatives to clinical budgeting

In the rhetoric of realpolitic, administrative reorganisation is considered very unlikely to succeed because
key interests will defend present rules of the game.

The article describes management reform processes within danish hospital services during the last ten
years. Formal decision authority has been decentralized from political bodies and upper echelons of bureaucracy
down the hierarchical layers to clinical departments on some danish hospitals.

It is argued that reforming is possible. Reforms do meet the opposition predicted by the theory. But, it is
possible to overcome these obstacles if the reform content are in accordance with the interests of key actors
and if the reform strategy is backed up by a political will to break procedural conventions.

Side 380

Paul D. Bartels og Jørgen Poulsen Decentralitation and Management

The effects of decentralization of responsibility for management and budgets are described from the point of view of the combined professional/manager in two service providing public intitutions (a high school and a general district hospital).The formal foundations are discussed together with internal "rules of the game" and informal political or organizational constraints. An assessment of possible effects of decentralization on service efficiency and quality is attemted. Despite demonstrable differences between the two institutions much convergence is observed.

Jens Henrik Haahr Democracy and the interdependence of modem societies

The growing interdependence of modern societies implies that two fundamental assumptions of democratic theory are becoming increasingly irrelevant: The assumption that there is conqruence between those affected by national political decisions and the citizens as voters; and the assumption that elected national representatives have a real and wide ranging freedom af action in their choice of policy.

We can point to three possible solutions to the democratic problems of interdependence. However, a (re)establishment of the nation state as an autonomous and isolated entity implies new serious democratic problems. Intergovernmental cooperation may in principle solve many problems, but this solution is most often blocked by free rider problems. The difficult option of supranational dimension to democracy therefore contains the largest potentials.

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