Politica, Bind 28 (1996) 4

Abstracts

Thomas Gregersen Political values in a pluralistic society - in defence of Rawls

According to John Rawls justice is the fundamental political value by which the citizens in modem democracies evaluate the legitimacy of the basic structure of society. In A theory og Justice (1971) and Political Liberalism (1993) Rawls tries to reconstruct our principles of justice by formulating a decision-making model for political values. The model is based on a idea of reciprocity shared by all reasonable citizens: The idea of society as a fair system of cooperation. It is argued that this model is suitable for a modern society with a plurality of political, cultural and social values. This gives the mode! great merit over monolistic theories as libertarianism, communitarianismand economic efficiency models. In its further development by Sen and Nussbaurn - the capability approach - the theory can also function as a normative reference for welfare policies. The model also points at two important destabilizing factors for the modern welfare state: egoism and distrust.

Gorm Toftegaard Nielsen A State Basedon the Law. Idea and Practice

The concept „Retsstat" is a direct translation from the German word „Rechtsstaat". The concept, however, is to a large extent based on the Age of Enlightenment philosophers John Locke, Montesqueiu and Rousseau. The principles of the separation of powers are incorporated in the Danish constitution, but in more than one way the division between making laws and implementing these laws causes problems. Partly, the tasks of the courts are considerably more limited than presupposed, and partly, the legislators are often supposed to take over the administration of the laws.

Jørn Henrik Petersen Values and interests in social policy

The basic values of the welfare state are contrasted with elements of a positive theory on the functioning of the political mechanism. To the extent that the outcomes of the „mechanism" deviate from the values the welfare state is placed in a field of tension caused by the societal dialectics of human selfishness. This makes the welfare state vulnerable and the legitimacy of the welfare state fragile.

Carsten Greve From state companies to state public limited companies

In the 1990'5, state companies have been transformed into publicly held companies. Explanations have concentrated on changes in technology and markets, and on modernization efforts in the public sector. A broader perspective is needed. Four theoretical types of explanations are discussed and applied to the Danish case. Explanations focusing on political and bureaucratic interests, contingency models, and new institutionalists' concern with symbolic action and institutional appropriateness are most adequate. Companies exposed to market pressure are likely to be explained in contingency terms. Strategies for analyzing change in organizational status in general is considered for discussion in the end, and a model proposed which gives prominence to interest type explanations.

Side 512

Preben Etwil Slow development of productivity in the government sector displaces the private service sector. - An investigation of the Baumol-effect in Denmark

This paper examines the growth of the government sector in Denmark since 1966 in the light of Baumols famous article from 1967 concerning the reasons for growth in the government sector.

The Baumol-model consists of two sectors, three assumptions and four assertions. The application of the model to Danish national accounts shows that differences in the development of productivity serve as a satisfactory explanation of the relative and absolute growth of the sector.

If the development of productivity in the government sector correspond to the development of productivity in the private service sector, a calculation shows that production ought to be 42 per sent higher.