The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics Deals with aesthetic problems and conveys current aesthetic research Nordic Society of Aesthetics en-US The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 2000-1452 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> </ol> <!-- content --> INTRODUCTION Jacob Lund Jacob Wamberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 5 9 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114846 THE STORY OF FOUNTAIN: HARD FACTS AND SOFT SPECULATION <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Thierry de Duve’s essay is anchored to the one and perhaps only hard fact that we possess regarding the story of Fountain: its photo in The Blind Man No. 2, triply captioned “Fountain by R. Mutt,” “Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz,” and “THE EXHIBIT REFUSED BY THE INDEPENDENTS,” and the editorial on the facing page, titled “The Richard Mutt Case.” He examines what kind of agency is involved in that triple “by,” and revisits Duchamp’s intentions and motivations when he created the fictitious R. Mutt, manipulated Stieglitz, and set a trap to the Independents. De Duve concludes with an invitation to art historians to abandon the “by” questions (attribution, etc.) and to focus on the “from” questions that arise when Fountain is not seen as a work of art so much as the bearer of the news that the art world has radically changed.</p> </div> </div> </div> Thierry de Duve ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 10 47 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114857 “THAT VERY FUNNY ARTICLE,” POLLYPERRUQUE, AND THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF DUCHAMP’S FOUNTAIN <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Within half a century, the status of Duchamp’s readymades changed from iconoclastic object to iconic sculpture. This contribution focusses on two of Duchamp’s readymades, one from 1915 and thus dated at the very beginning of Duchamp’s occupation with this subject matter, while the other is dated 1967, the very last object to enter this particular category within Duchamp’s oeuvre. André Breton remarked that “future generations can do no less than make a systematic effort to go back the stream of Duchamp’s thought and carefully describe its meanderings in search of the hidden treasure which was his mind.” It is with these suggestions in mind that, after the examination of an heretofore unknown readymade from the 1910’s and his collage Pollyperruque from the year before he passed away, final observations will examine the 100th anniversary of Duchamp’s Fountain to reassess the readymade’s potential as an analog object and social media phenomenon in the digital realm.</p> </div> </div> </div> Thomas Girst ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 48 64 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114849 CONNECTING THREADS: DUCHAMP’S READYMADES AND LARGE GLASS PROJECT IN CONTEXT, 1913—14 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In 1963 Duchamp described his vertical installation of three Readymades at the Pasadena Art Museum as “readymade talk of what goes on in the Large Glass.” Elsewhere, he spoke of the Readymades as “vehicles for unloading ideas,” and during the years 1912-15 his mind was filled with ideas as he invented the “playful physics” for his techno-scientific allegory of quest, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass] (1915-23). This essay argues that the “ideas” being unloaded in the Readymades were rooted in his extensive study of contemporary science and technology as well as the biographical experience of his stay at Herne Bay on the English seacoast during August 1913. Readymades addressed include the Bicycle Wheel, With Hidden Noise, Paris Air, and Fresh Widow. Central themes include string or thread, traced from his preoccupation with tennis during his holiday, and the impact of the electrical spectacle of the illuminated Pier Pavilion at Herne Bay.</p> </div> </div> </div> Linda Dalrymple Henderson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 65 86 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114850 “THERE IS NO PROGRESS, CHANGE IS ALL WE KNOW.” NOTES ON DUCHAMP’S CONCEPT OF PLASTIC DURATION <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Henri Bergson is generally recognized as one of the most influential philosophers in the history of historical avant-gardism. Nevertheless, it has been widely neglected that Bergson’s philosophy also played a crucial role for the radically new concept of art that Marcel Duchamp developed based on his critical attitude towards the avant-gardes. First and foremost, this is apparent in view of Duchamp’s paintings The Passage from Virgin to Bride and Bride of 1912, as they both feature an idea of transition laying the foundation for his Large Glass and associated works. But there is also another cross-connection that one wouldn’t expect at the first glance. As this paper argues, Duchamp paradoxically also draws on Bergson’s ideas with his ready-mades, pointing to that productive interplay of intuition and intellect, which Bergson defined as a vital source for any kind of imagination and agency. Thus, Duchamp’s idea of choosing his ready-mades in terms of a “rendezvous with fate,” which he also reflected in his writing experiments The and Rendezvous, can be closely linked to his declared interest in Bergson’s “primacy of change,” leading him to explore the idea of “plastic duration.”</p> </div> </div> </div> Sarah Kolb ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 87 108 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114851 SHRINK TO EXPAND: THE READYMADES THROUGH THE LARGE GLASS <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Departing from Duchamp’s advice in 1961 of finding the “com- mon factor” between the non-representative and the representa- tive, translated here into modernism and avant-garde, this article seeks to understand the readymades as objects that have passed metaphorically through Duchamp’s magnum opus, the unfinished Large Glass (1915-23). More precisely, the readymades are seen as mass-produced utensils that have been stripped bare of their usual function, i.e. their actualization, in order to regain potentiali- ty. Mapping Giorgio Agamben’s interpretation of Herman Melville’s short story Bartleby, the Scrivener (1856) onto the readymades, this shrink-to-expand strategy is understood as a skeptical suspen- sion of judgment, epoché, comparable to Bartleby’s polite refusal to work. Moreover, it is seen as equivalent to the down-scaling of dimensionality observed in the Large Glass, where transparency in one go eliminates the representation of spatial circumstances and opens up the objects toward the ever-changing physical surround- ings, thereby exposing more of those 4-dimensional projections, which are normally suppressed in our reduced 3-dimensional per- ception of the world.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jacob Wamberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 109 140 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114852 THE SECOND HALF OF THE READYMADE CENTURY (1964–) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The readymades conceived and selected by Marcel Duchamp be- tween the years 1914–1917 have, with very few exceptions, not survived until the present day as ‘original.’ A variety of forms, in- cluding documentary photos, objects chosen and approved later by Duchamp as well as remakes of the historical objects comprise the readymades’ legacy. Duchamp’s remakes of his readymades as a limited edition of multiples from 1964, commemorating the 50-year anniversary of his selection of the Bottle Dryer in 1914, mark the beginning of the second half of the “Readymade Century.” In contrast to their widespread visibility, the paradoxical ‘construct- edness’ of these objects is rarely discussed. The representational impact and the conceptual specificity of these multiples goes far beyond the oeuvre of Marcel Duchamp, and can be seen as a pre- monition of artistical appropriation strategies from the 1980s to the present day.</p> </div> </div> </div> Dieter Daniels ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 141 157 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114853 THE PROPERTY OF KNOWLEDGE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>We can note three phases in the tradition of the readymade and appropriation since Duchamp’s Bicycle Wheel of 1913. First, they include early enactments in which the readymade posed an onto- logical challenge to artworks through the equation of commodity and art object. Second, practices in which readymades were de- ployed semantically as lexical elements within a sculpture, paint- ing, installation or projection. In a third phase, which most directly encompasses the global, the appropriation of objects, images, and other forms of content challenges sovereignty over the cultural and economic value linked to things that emerge from particular cultural properties ranging from Aboriginal painting in Australia to the ap- propriation of Mao’s cult of personality in 1990s China. This essay considers the most recent phase of the readymade in terms of its century-long history.</p> </div> </div> </div> David Joselit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 158 165 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114854 CONTRIBUTORS Jacob Lund ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 28 57-58 166 167 10.7146/nja.v28i57-58.114855