The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics Deals with aesthetic problems and conveys current aesthetic research Nordic Society of Aesthetics en-US The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 2000-1452 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> </ol> <!-- content --> INTRODUCTION Jacob Lund Sven Anders Johansson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 5 7 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110726 CONFLICTS OF GESTURES, CONFLICTS OF IMAGES <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The article presents some notes for an anthropology of the gestures of uprising [soulèvement]. It argues that, just as sounds (screams, words, slogans) always come out of the mouth of the demonstra- tors, images of all kinds are also brandished at the end of their arms. Based on this the article raises the question of the very notion of a desire for uprising.</p> </div> </div> </div> Georges Didi-Huberman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 8 22 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110720 THE HOBBESIAN TURN <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The “Hobbesian turn” is an invention out of whole cloth, a device by which to oppose the usually supposed autonomy of the aesthetic, the moral, the political, and the factual; to recover the collective holism of civilizational (or enlanguaged cultural) life; to feature the existential historicity of the human career, which is incompatible with any strict universalism and all the forms of transcendentalism; hence, also, to feature the adequacy of a contingent Lebensform in collecting the affinities of creative expression and agentive commitment within the terms of human solidarity; to abandon strict universality and necessary synthetic truths; and to favour the fluxive world of pragmatist construction rather than the indemonstrable fixities of rationalism and transcendentalism. The article proceeds largely by examining aspects of Picasso’s career and the history of Western politics spanning the sixteenth century to the present.</p> </div> </div> </div> Joseph Margolis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 23 40 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110743 THE PROMISE OF THE INDEX IN CONTEMPORARY DOCUMENTARY PERFORMANCE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This essay investigates the troubled status of the concept of the index and its concomitant notion of evidence within the context of a global, visual culture. Specifically, the essay centres on the notion of the index in an era, where the use of digital images claiming to truthfully represent war and conflict has become an increasingly important part of warfare. Focusing on two documentary works by respectively performance artist Rabih Mroué and visual artist Abu Lawrence Hamdan (Forensic Architecture), the article shows that whilst both artists rely on material documents, which in each their way index back to conflictual events, the crucial point is not so much the status of the evidentiary material per se. Instead, enabled by fictitious strategies, the artists invite us to pay attention to the differing statuses and meanings assigned to documents depending on the particular knowledge systems and spaces of appearance within which they are perceived. In this way, the essay argues, the works of Mroué and Hamdan help us move beyond the discourses within documentary theory, which tend to conform to either a postmodernist relativist position or a realist epistemology.</p> </div> </div> </div> Solveig Gade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 27 55-56 41 64 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110753 ESSAY: THE KUNSTWOLLEN OF THE SCIENTIFIC ERA AND ALOIS RIEGL’S STIMMUNG <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Alois Riegl’s essay “Die Stimmung als Inhalt der modernen Kunst” (1899) has been one of art historiography’s early attempts to bridge art and science. In this text, Riegl not only presents the background of some of his theoretical and methodological premises but he also provides an overarching argument for the way natural sciences af- fect modern spectatorship. In this way, he establishes the basis of a Kunstwollen for the ‘age of the natural sciences’ and describes its appropriate artistic traits. Addressing the intellectual and historical context of the Stimmung Essay, this article shows how Riegl’s ideas work in a subtle and intricate manner, involving the combination of sensual and phenomenological observations to modes of knowl- edge. In this respect, the relation of art and science does not seem to be settled on a fixed contemplative basis but on the combination of the art with cognition and affects.</p> </div> </div> </div> Konstantinos Vassiliou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 65 81 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110746 HOW TO FRAME EDIBLE ART <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The question of whether food is art depends primarily on the definition of art that we agree to accept. The article proposes a model that helps us to focus our mind on what could be, and how we should understand the art of food, if we accept, having applied a fairly liberal theory of art, that food can actually be art. It is argued that there are no methodological or factual constraints indicating that food could not, under some circumstances, be high art. This hypothetical form of art is called ‘edible art’.</p> </div> </div> </div> Adam Andrzejewski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 82 97 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110724 “PLEASE LEAVE A MESSAGE”: THE MEDIA ECOLOGY OF RUBEN ÖSTLUND’S PLAY, FORCE MAJEURE, AND THE SQUARE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article examines three films by the Swedish director Ruben Östlund: Play (2011), Force Majeure (2014), and The Square (2017). It describes the role of mobile phones in the films, both on the level of content and in terms of aesthetics. Within the films, the failure of the phone to connect the protagonists to significant others is seen as symbolic of an alienation that leads them to points of crisis. Here, the mobile phone works as a device in two ways. First, as a significant communication technology, and second, as a plot contrivance to advance the dramatic conflict. Critically, the mobile phone opens an uncertain space where subjectivity becomes increasingly insecure, precisely as it becomes fundamentally intertwined with it. There is a cinematic tradition of mobilizing this ambiguity to which this process can be connected. Further, the form of these works is considered in relation to the notion of traumatic repetition, and how this expands into the wider contemporary image-culture and the key influence of YouTube within this. Here, the films are considered in relation to the changing dynamic of the public sphere in the light of the mobile recording capabilities, that have come to shape an emergent cinematic aesthetic evident in these films.</p> </div> </div> </div> John Lynch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 98 115 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110729 FAMILY FRAMING AND THE COMEDY OF CONVENTIONS IN RUBEN ÖSTLUND’S FORCE MAJEURE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Ruben Östlund’s Force Majeure (2014) centres around a Swedish family vacationing at a ski resort in the Alps. The film depicts how the family breaks down after the father leaves his wife and children behind while fleeing from a possible avalanche. This breakdown is reflected in the film’s use of framing. In the opening scenes, the viewer is presented with a series of family portraits. After the averted disaster, the family is no longer shown as a coherent whole. Framing in Force Majeure is thus as a technical as well as a thematic matter related to the film’s exploration of the nuclear family. Framing is also connected to the comedic characterization of the family that the film depicts. Rather than identifying with them, the viewer is invited to critically reflect upon their self-image and their actions. The focus of this essay is therefore the concept of framing in connection with the film’s theme of family and certain comedic conventions. Force Majeure is symmetrically structured and the narrative progression adheres to a traditional plot-pattern moving from the disruption of order to the restoration of order. Yet, the film also flaunts its structure and makes the viewer aware of the clichés of conventional storytelling as these clichés and conventions are reproduced in the lives of the main characters.</p> </div> </div> </div> Roger Edholm ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 116 133 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110722 CARTESIAN SUBJECTS LOST IN THE ALPS REFLECTIONS ON RUBEN ÖSTLUND’S FORCE MAJEURE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The article analyses the constitution of subjectivity in Ruben Östlund’s film Force Majeure (2014). At the centre of attention stands the male protagonist who is uncapable of reconciling his inner nature with the external expectations. If the film may be un- derstood as a critique of existing middle-class conventions, it also reproduces a highly conventional ideal of the self-identical subject. The article argues that this confusion or irony is an expression of a Cartesian subject – still prevalent in the film – in crisis. A neglected aspect of Descartes’ theory is that the autonomy of the subjects presupposes the existence of God. The problem for Östlund’s char- acters is that there is no God. Still, they act as if he, or as if any au- thority might, legitimize their subjectivity. Thus, the whole existence becomes a series of performances. The idea of an inner nature cor- responds with the notion of an outer nature. The latter is certainly very present in Force Majeure, but at the same time this nature is constantly problematized. On an allegorical level, the film may thus be read as a comment on the Anthropocene, a state where we no longer know neither what “nature”, nor “culture” is.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sven Anders Johansson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 134 148 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110717 UNCONTROL ON RUBEN ÖSTLUND’S FORCE MAJEURE <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Ruben Östlund’s film Force Majeure (2014) was mostly received as a depiction of the crisis of masculinity. And it is, but that particular theme is also placed within a larger context concerning questions of value, understanding, order, and control, questions asked not only on a thematic level but also through cutting, framing, and the use of camera views. Not accepting any simple dichotomy between form and meaning, Force Majeure places itself firmly in an avant- garde and modernist tradition.</p> <p>Thereby the film is also related to this tradition’s ambition of investigating Western thought, knowledge and art anew, problematising given forms of rational thinking in order for something new to emerge. In the wake of World War II it was, for thinkers like Adorno, Foucault, Stockhausen, and Boulez, seen as unavoidable and urgent to deconstruct the conventions and norms that had made Auschwitz possible. It is still urgent. This article takes its starting point in the connections between avant-garde serialism in music, Foucault’s serialist methods of research and Deleuze’s theories of modernist film, in order to grasp how the aesthetics of Force Majeure continues to deconstruct.</p> </div> </div> </div> Anders E. Johansson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 27 55-56 149 164 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110754 REVIEW: ELSE MARIE BUKDAHL, THE RECURRENT ACTUALITY OF THE BAROQUE Per Aage Brandt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 165 171 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110736 REVIEW: JULIA SCHLEIS ET AL., EDS., CONTEMPORARY RUINS / RUINEN DER GEGENWART Zoltán Somhegyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 27 55-56 172 175 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110741 CONTRIBUTORS Jacob Lund ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 27 55-56 176 178 10.7146/nja.v27i55-56.110757