Leviathan: Interdisciplinary Journal in English https://tidsskrift.dk/lev <p>A student journal for the students of the Department of English at Aarhus University.</p> Department of English, Aarhus University en-US Leviathan: Interdisciplinary Journal in English 2446-3981 <p>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a>)</p> <p>You are free to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format).&nbsp;</p> <p>However:<br>You may not use the material for commercial purposes.<br>You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<br>If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.<br>You may not apply legal terms or technological measures&nbsp;that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lakoff and Women’s Language https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112651 <p>In <em>Language and Woman’s Place </em>(1973), Robin T. Lakoff argues that women’s subordinate position in society is manifested in and maintained by their tentative speech style. Since the publication of the study, this claim has achieved great attention in the field of language and gender, and various scholars have examined the features of Lakoff’s ‘women’s language’ empirically. This article creates a critical overview of four studies investigating specific features of tentative language, primarily tag questions, and discusses to what extent their findings support Lakoff’s thesis. While all the studies find that women employ more tentative features than men, they also observe that tentative language serves facilitative functions in interaction. Thus, tentative language cannot be understood exclusively as a deficient contrast to assertive language. A nuanced understanding of tentative language requires a functional perspective that recognizes the efficient social functions of the speech style.&nbsp;</p> Amalie Due Svendsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-10 2019-03-10 4 1 11 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112651 Arguments for and against the Idea of Universal Grammar https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112677 <p>For many, language is viewed as something that is actively <em>learned</em> through sensory stimulus and training. However, the idea of Universal Grammar (UG) challenges this notion by pointing at the inconsistencies in the behaviorist model of language learning. Proponents of Universal Grammar argue that language is <em>acquired</em> rather than learned, meaning that linguistic structures are a biologically innate part of the human mind. This paper explores arguments on both sides of the issue, beginning with the classical behaviorist model and then turning to two selected arguments for UG before finally discussing the theory in light of more recent criticisms. In the end, I conclude that while Universal Grammar is still controversial in the field of linguistics, it at the very least succeeds in showing that there are still unanswered questions regarding the way the human mind acquires language.</p> Christian Hejlesen Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 12 28 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112677 The Philosophy of ‘Fish’ https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112678 <p>Animals occupy a unique form of experience relative to our own. Our encounters with them often lead to contemplations of human perspective and identity. This essay analyses the human-animal encounter in D.H. Lawrence’s poem ‘Fish’ and the speaker's approaches in comprehending the other. The essay extrapolates this to explore ideas of knowledge and identify the poem's challenges to anthropomorphic perspectives and Christian principles</p> Helena Hastings-Gayle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 29 37 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112678 (Partner) Hunting in Rick Bass’ ‘Antlers’ https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112679 <p>This paper aims to elucidate the proportionality&nbsp;amongst&nbsp;the micro-ideologies within the field that ecocriticism occupies. Through an analysis of Rick’ Bass short story ‘Antlers’ the paper points out and contrasts these micro-ideologies. Moreover, it examines the author’s usage of figurative language including allegory of hunting which the paper argues aims to depict human interrelations in contemporary society. Finally, it argues that the author implicitly advocates anthropocentrism over biologism and that his vision of environmentalism is influenced by his values. Said values are found to be pronounced in his fiction as well as his nonfictional accounts.</p> Ida Hagh Møller ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 38 47 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112679 “The Frailty of Everything” https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112680 <p><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Verdana',sans-serif;">In Cormac McCarthy’s post-apocalyptic novel&nbsp;<em><span style="font-family: 'Verdana',sans-serif;">The Road</span></em>, a man and boy roam a desolate, grey landscape. They are witnesses of an unknown catastrophe, forced to inhabit the remnants of a world once known. The man and boy are rooted in different pasts, and the paper examines the differences between the two characters with particular focus on language, memory and meaning in the post-apocalyptic world. The boy and man are significant for understanding the interconnections between past and present, but the novel in its entirety is also a necessary and inevitable component in understanding the paradox of language and memory. The paper argues that <em><span style="font-family: 'Verdana',sans-serif;">The Road</span></em>, in its encounter with readers, becomes an ironic work, because readers subconsciously induce their own memory, experiences and connotations to make sense of the post-apocalyptic world, although the post-apocalyptic world is foreign and in many ways incompatible with the world that readers know.</span></p> Jane Ladefoged ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 48 69 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112680 Popular Science Articles and Academic Reports on the Topics of Cultural Commodification and Institutionalised Racism https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112681 <p>This paper examines two aspects within cultural studies, namely that of cultural commodification and institutionalised racism. These are explored through a review style article discussing the commodification and appropriation of indigenous Australian food items on the television cooking programme Masterchef Australia, and in an ‘op-ed’ style piece considering the systemic racism represented by the blackface character of Zwarte Piet (Black Pete) in the Dutch festive tradition of Sinterklaas (St. Nicholas). These two articles are followed by case study reports which analyse how the theories were applied. The arguments in the reports conclude that Masterchef Australia has a responsibility to better represent indigenous Australian culture, and that the tradition of Zwarte Piet clearly exemplifies institutionalised racism and discrimination.</p> Katherina C. P. Vowles-Sørensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 70 83 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112681 The Crosslinguistic Influence of First and Second Language on Third Language Acquisition https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112682 <p>This paper explores the crosslinguistic influences of first and second language on third language acquisition. While it has earlier been argued that Universal Grammar is lost with subsequent language acquisition, some studies indicate that Universal Grammar is not lost and is also applied when acquiring other languages. By drawing on two studies of third language acquisition where the third languages are V2, it is shown that when it comes to acquiring a third language, transfer can happen from both the first and second languages. One study showed that both the first and second languages can influence the acquisition of a third language while another argued in favor of the second language being the most dominant influence. On the basis of an examination of different theoretical approaches to language transfer, this paper argues that the Typological Primacy Model provides the most convincing and pragmatic explanation in that language transfer depends on linguistic circumstances.</p> Kirsten Lindegaard Helms ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 4 84 94 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112682 One-Substitution and Noun Ellipsis in English and Danish https://tidsskrift.dk/lev/article/view/112693 <p>When a speaker of English does not want to repeat the same noun too many times,&nbsp;<em>one</em>-substitution is often used: "She would rather have a big house than a small&nbsp;<em>one"</em>&nbsp;(i.e., a small house). An alternative construction of an elliptical noun phrase is to simply leave out the noun, as when a Danish speaker says:&nbsp;<em>Jeg vil hellere have et stort hus end et lille</em>:<em>&nbsp;</em>"I would rather have a big house than a small". Beginning with observations about <em>one</em>-substitution in English, this paper outlines and discusses&nbsp;<em>one</em>-substitution and noun ellipsis in Danish. With some reservations, the paper supports the argument presented by Günther (2018) that differences between languages regarding&nbsp;<em>one</em>-substitution are based on the inflectional properties of the languages.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maria Mørch Dahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-03-02 2019-03-02 4 95 108 10.7146/lev.v0i4.112693