Leviathan: Interdisciplinary Journal in English 2021-01-23T02:36:54+01:00 Jens Kjeldgaard-Christiansen Open Journal Systems <p>A student journal for the students of the Department of English at Aarhus University. The journal is sponsored by the Carlsberg Foundation (<a href="">Young Researcher Fellowship, 2020</a>).</p> Freedom’s Journal 2021-01-23T02:36:54+01:00 Emma Stave <p>This article examines the first newspaper operated, published, and distributed by free blacks in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, <em>Freedom’s Journal</em>. &nbsp;Despite being active for merely two years, the New York-based periodical managed to unite African Americans across different states by becoming their mouthpiece. The first part of the article examines well-established historical facts including information about the editors, the readership, and the methods of distribution. The second part examines changes brought to the journalistic field by African Americans, while part three analyzes excerpts from a debate between proponents of the colonization movement, and their African American opponents. The final part discusses why the periodical ceased publishing, the importance of the method of distribution, and how the paper may have impacted subsequent black rights movements. Finally, an assessment is given as to how periodicals like <em>Freedom’s Journal </em>may influence the present and the future.</p> 2020-03-13T15:57:43+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From SOV to SVO 2021-01-23T02:36:48+01:00 Freja Bang Lauridsen <p>The change in constituent order in English is one of the most thoroughly investigated changes in the history of the English language. Even so, there is still disagreement among scholars as to what caused the change. The aim of this article is to argue that it was the influence of the Scandinavians and their language, Old Norse, that caused English to abandon the SOV constituent order and instead adopt SVO constituent order. Because of the intense language contact between the two cultures, several linguistic features of Old Norse found their way into the English language. Numerous morphological features were borrowed from Old Norse, but especially the adoption of syntactic features such as stylistic fronting and CP-V2 suggests that Old Norse influence was strong enough to affect the basic syntax of English and thus strong enough to have initiated the change in English constituent order.</p> 2020-03-13T16:03:35+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## What Is It Like to Be a Bête 2021-01-23T02:36:42+01:00 Jane Kannegård Ladefoged <p>In Adam Roberts’ futuristic novel <em>Bête</em> (2014), animals have been given the ability to speak through an implanted small and seemingly insignificant brain chip. This article examines Roberts’ novel through the scope of anthropomorphism and readers’ empathy, as this particular combination is significant for understanding the novel. The analysis starts by characterizing Graham with emphasis on character development. Hereafter, I examine the complicated way in which Bête deals with anthropomorphism. In the discussion, I bring into question the topic of readers’ empathy and examine how this relates to anthropomorphism. Through aspects of hierarchy, oppression, unappealing characters, consciousness, tragicomedy and contemporary political topics, the subjects of anthropomorphism and empathy become highly obscured in <em>Bête</em>. These aspects come to illustrate that man and animal are not that different and that readers’ empathy does not depend on any particular species or character trait.</p> 2020-03-13T16:13:29+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Between Literary Idealisation and Historical Decline 2021-01-23T02:36:36+01:00 Josefine Skaanning Lønborg <p>By 1827, the destruction of the clan system, the Highland clearances and the commercialisation of the Highlands has by large left the traditional Highland way of life a thing of the past. &nbsp;Nevertheless, the Highlander reappears in the late 18<sup>th</sup> and early 19<sup>th</sup> century as an increasingly dominant literary figure. Addressing the discrepancy between the historical Highlander and the literary figure, the Highlander is identified as a multifaceted figure ranging from romantic idealisation to necessary decline. In this article, it is argued that the combination of the assimilation of the actual Highlanders, the centrality of the Highlander as a military hero fighting in British service and the rise of the Highlander as an idealised literary figure is what renders the elevation of the Highlander to national symbol possible.</p> 2020-03-13T16:15:46+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prestige and Prejudice 2021-01-23T02:36:30+01:00 Matias Rasmussen Porsgaard <p>This article examines Danes’ attitudes towards selected accents of English drawing on data from an experiment where 21 Danes were asked to evaluate speakers of Australian English, Received Pronunciation (RP), General American (GA), Southern American English and Danish-accented English. It is argued that Danes have internalised multiple stereotypes about speakers of these accents and that the media play a vital role in the creation and reinforcement of these stereotypes. It is also argued that RP is considered the most prestigious accent of English, that GA is considered the most ‘standard’ accent of English and that Danish-accented English is disliked by Danes.</p> 2020-03-13T16:31:18+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Becoming Jane Eyre 2021-01-23T02:36:24+01:00 Molly Rymer <p>This article explores the parallels drawn between the characters of Jane Eyre and Bertha Mason in Charlotte Bronte’s 1847 novel <em>Jane Eyre, </em>using Jean Rhys’ 1966 novel <em>Wide Sargasso Sea </em>to further this comparison. I use Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar’s argument that Bertha is Jane’s double, or other self, to argue that Jane and Bertha both possess a form of androgyny within their characters, Jane’s due to her class and Bertha’s due to her race. I suggest that these forms of androgyny prevent Jane, in particular, from becoming spiritually equal with Mr. Rochester, proposing that, due to their connection as doubles, Jane must be rid of both her own, as well as Bertha’s androgynous shadow, in order to enter into marriage with Rochester as his equal.</p> 2020-03-13T16:34:01+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Beef Between Men and Animals 2021-01-23T02:36:18+01:00 Sarah Agnes Thonsgaard Klainberger <p>Fast-food companies often rely on images objectifying women in their advertising as a way to sell their products. Following Carol J. Adams’ work on absent referents, this article argues that they rely on ideas and images objectifying animals as well. However, the use of these ideas and images is problematic because the normalization of the objectification of non-human animals and women in fast-food advertising can have consequences for both as it perpetuates animal exploitation and gender inequality. This article analyzes three examples of fast-food advertising from Arby’s, Carl’s Jr., and Burger King which arguably contribute to the normalization of the objectification of animals and women through their perpetuation of the problematic notion that eating animals is both natural and masculine. The analysis illustrates links between women and non-human animals in advertising and supports the linked oppression theory.</p> 2020-03-13T16:36:42+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##