International Review of Theoretical Psychologies <p>International Review of Theoretical Psychologies (IRTP) is a journal that publishes academic articles originally presented at a conference of the <a title="ISTP" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Society of Theoretical Psychology (ISTP)</a> and subsequently rewritten as articles, peer-reviewed, revised and edited. IRTP seeks to provide access to academic work in theoretical psychologies of all kinds and in all their varieties. Although each issue represents this variety, it also reflects an emphasis on a contemporary broad theme, which was chosen for the most recent ISTP conference.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Society of Theoretical Psychology en-US International Review of Theoretical Psychologies 2597-3479 <p>IRTP operates based on a non-exclusive publishing agreement, according to which the journal retains the right of first publication, but authors are free to subsequently publish their work. The copyright of all work rests with the author(s).&nbsp;</p> <p>All content published in IRTP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (<a href="">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>). This license allows authors and readers to share and adapt content for non-commercial purposes, provided that they abide by the following terms:&nbsp;</p> <p>- Give credit to the original author(s)/creator(s) and attribution parties (i.e., IRTP);</p> <p>- Provide a link to the original source, to the extent practicable;</p> <p>- Include the copyright notice and/or indicate the corresponding Creative Commons license;</p> <p>- Indicate what, if any, adaptations were made to the original; and</p> <p>- Share adapted content under the same license as the original.</p> <p>Authors are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the various&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons licenses</a>. Readers are advised to consult the licensing information embedded in each published work to ensure that they are familiar with the terms of use that apply.</p> Measured Lives – Theoretical Psychology in an Era of Acceleration Ditte Winther-Lindqvist Andrés Haye Dorte Kousholt Kyoko Murakami Morten Nissen Ramiro Tau Copyright (c) 2021 Ditte Winther-Lindqvist 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127093 Psychology challenged <p>The challenges that psychology encounters when studying the human and the social in times of accelerating and heterogeneously composed processes of becoming, call for theorizing of and analytical attention to complexity at multiple levels. This attention needs to focus a comprehensive horizon of intra-acting elements and agencies, while still maintaining the human as an important focus of research. In this article I discuss how the efforts to pursue this ambition may find inspiration from some of the analytical perspectives offered by poststructuralist and new materialist frameworks. While surpassing orthodoxy in all versions I encourage a continuous diffractive reading of such perspectives with those of other theoretical traditions to maintain theorizing as a vital, processual and curious endeavor that remains relevant and sensitive to an always moving and surprising empirical reality. My reflections on psychology theorizing is nurtured by brief empirical examples from my own and my colleagues’ research. These examples include different versions of technologically involved human relating and agency, e.g., linked to children and young people’s use of social media, computer gaming among children, and young people’s involvement in digital sexual practices. The technologically mediated, formative processes entailed in digital participation among children and young people constantly open new horizons of potential identities, positionings, and body cultures that call for analytical sensitivity. In the last part of the paper, I discuss the ethical implications of a complexity sensitive psychology theorizing. I argue that the ethics of psychological empirical research must embrace the apparatuses that enable and enact social and subjective being, becoming, and agency as mattering and discursively entangled processes. Without losing sight of the individual, a retuning of research ethics therefore implies working on the vitalization and response-ability of the apparatus in its heterogeneous composition and the agential entanglement that produces the phenomena in focus.</p> Dorte Marie Søndergaard Copyright (c) 2021 Dorte Marie Søndergaard 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127074 Time at a Standstill <p>From an experiential point of view, acceleration is a space-shrinking and a time-stressing phenomenon. Assuming that this phenomenon has reached a decisive pervasiveness in late modernity, so that it has become determinative of social relations in general, a question about its impact on the structure of experience and of the subject of experience bears a double signification: on the one hand, it concerns temporality, i.e., the structure of the experience of time, and, on the other hand, it concerns historicity, that is, the structure of the experience of historical time. I suppose that the development of this question requires examining the structure of the experience of the present, given that acceleration may be considered at first sight as an intensive experience of the present. But, then, an examination of the structure of the experience of the present is deeply rooted in the structure of the present itself. So, my argument relates three concepts: experience, present, and acceleration, the latter according to the double effect in which this phenomenon appears (spaceshrinking and time-stressing).</p> Pablo Oyarzún R. Copyright (c) 2021 Pablo Oyarzun R. 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127075 Shifting Ontology in an Era of Acceleration and Quantified Humanity <p>The idea that we are swept along in unforeseen consequences of our capitalist ideals of continuous progress stands in stark contrast to Kelly’s (1966) consideration of the active role that human activity plays in human evolution. The cumulative change of humanity behaving differently, and divergent behaviour changing humanity, produce acceleration, and for Kelly this acceleration is ontological. In this paper I explore three moments of accelerated change, associated with the ontologies of object, relation and trace. Object ontology encouraged the dehumanised subject, relational ontology a calculated embodied subject and trace ontology the responsible subject.Currently we find ourselves somewhere between the calculated embodied and the responsible subject, cognitively related to others, but not yet prepared to experience the other as me differed and deferred from myself.</p> Vasi van Deventer Copyright (c) 2021 Vasi van Deventer 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127076 McMindfulness in the Era of Accelerated Life <p>This article addresses how we are to understand mindfulness as a cultural phenomenon and why it has changed so little of what it originally set out to address. In the article, it will be argued that we need to understand the development of mindfulness as a part of the progression of neoliberalism. Central in the analysis of neoliberalism stands Harvey’s concept of accumulation by dispossession (2003, 2007) helping us understanding the transformations mindfulness has made from being a part of a religious practice to becoming a product in the modern health discourse through processes of privatizing and commodification. Finally, the article discusses if mindfulness contains critical potentials for change.</p> Klaus Nielsen Copyright (c) 2021 Klaus Nielsen 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127078 Meditation in the age of its technological mimicry <p>In recent years, mindfulness meditation has become a popular technique to reduce stress or anxietyrelated problems and to enhance happiness and wellbeing. Apart from specific real-life mindfulness <br>programs in schools, hospitals, military, and business environments, there is a strongly expanding <br>field of digitally mediated mindfulness. From a critical psychological, ‘Foucauldian’ perspective, <br>we analyse popular mindfulness apps as dispositifs of power that contribute to aligning the selfgovernance of individuals with the requirements of neo-liberal governance. Our analysis exposes <br>them as sociocultural artefacts fostering exactly such forms of subjectification that fit the neoliberal <br>state of affairs. By freely amalgamating and interweaving psychological, Buddhist, and economic <br>‘knowledge’ (their ‘meditations’ being inspired, apart from alleged Buddhist sources, from <br>cognitive behavioral therapy, positive psychology, and management literature), such apps orient <br>self-government towards competition, optimization, enhancement, and acceleration, i.e., towards a <br>happiness conflated with productivity – probably not quite what the Buddha had in mind.</p> Thomas Slunecko Laisha Chlouba Copyright (c) 2021 Thomas Slunecko, Laisha Chlouba 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127079 Measured lives in educational psychology <p>Why is the work of educational researcher John Hattie’s work so popular today? This is the question we will try to answer in this paper. Based on a very large empirical database, Hattie calculates the effects of numerous educational interventions and factors influencing student achievements. Despite documented methodological flaws in his work, Hattie’s work keep attracting the attention of policy makers, teachers and educational researchers all over the world. We propose to understand thepopularity of Hattie’s work in relation to the ongoing debate about the legitimation of schooling – using Habermas’ (1976) work Legitimation Crisis as point of departure. Our claim is that Hattie is offering a theoretical synthesis of effective teaching as a way to legitimize modern schooling. However, there are a number of problems with this synthesis, most notably that it does not include the pupils’ intentions for participating.</p> Klaus Nielsen Jacob Klitmøller Copyright (c) 2021 Klaus Nielsen , Jakob Klitmøller 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127080 "Crisis” and “re-foundation” of psychology – outmoded topics of theoretical-psychological discourse? <p>In the 1970-80ies critical assessments of the problematic state of psychology as science were flourishing, stressing the theoretical disintegration and practical irrelevance of psychological basic research and connecting both defects to a misplaced dependence of mainstream psychology on a scientistic notion of scientific cognition. Talks of a crisis in psychology were gaining ground again. Controverting the paradigmatic maturity vs. the pre-/non-paradigmatic state of our discipline or, alternatively, its necessarily multi-paradigmatic character, the quest for unification as against a programmatic theoretical pluralism became a top issue of scholarly dispute. The institutionalisation of ISTP in 1985 and its initial epistemological and meta-theoretical core themes clearly reflected this pervasive trend. Some 35 years later, it has become noticeably quiet about such concerns, and there is no evidence of a renewal of large-scale discussions on a foundational crisis in psychology, let alone of ambitious attempts at theoretical unification or re-foundation – despite the fact that none of the “epistemopathologial“ (Koch, 1981) diagnoses of traditional variable-psychology have been refuted or lost strategic importance. Combining historical retrospection with an exemplary analysis of topical theoretical-psychological subjects, the aim of my paper is to get a clearer idea of where Theoretical Psychology currently stands in regard to the meta-scientific study of psychological theory-problems.</p> Wolfgang Maiers Copyright (c) 2021 Wolfgang Maiers 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127081 On the Aesthetics of Self Expression <p>Theoretical psychology is at its best when it engages in the wider psychological community by bringing about critical reflection and synthesis. This vision is challenging to accomplish due to “anesthesia”: a practice of ‘comatose’ production divorced from authentically generative activity and meaningful engagement with others. This notion is developed by drawing on Marcuse’s discussion of the surplus of suppression enabled by technology and a hyperreal milieu. Technological practices such as the engineering of social media platforms maximize anesthesia and amplify such concerns. I advocate for a turn to Bakhtinian aesthetics of self-expression to spell out an aesthetic for theoretical psychology.</p> Jim Cresswell Copyright (c) 2021 Jim Cresswell 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127082 Machines for the Making of Gods? <p>In the early 1930s Henri Bergson made a bold attempt to trace the source of religious experience, belief and practice to a psychological process he called ‘fabulation’ (a term deriving from the Latin fabula, meaning either talk / conversation / discourse, or a story, tale, myth, legend or fable). Beginning with an illustration from the drama series Humans, this paper delineates six main features of fabulation and concentrates attention on two of these: the occasioning of fabulation by a significant event of rupture, and a subsequent double attribution of a powerful agency addressing a powerless subject. The first, which was left implicit by Bergson, is developed via liminality theory. An understanding of fabulation as occasioned by liminal experience also enables an account of the second feature inspired by Heider’s concept of the ‘person’: ‘person’ attributions typical of social perception come – under liminal conditions – to be made with respect to events that otherwise invite naturalistic attributions. Given the tendency in Psychology to treat fabulation purely negatively as part of a mission to explain personhood naturalistically, a more productive and creative orientation to fabulation is called for in the conclusion. This orientation may become increasingly necessary given the liminal nature of the ‘accelerating’ world order/disorder that was the topic of ISTP Copenhagen.</p> Paul Stenner Copyright (c) 2021 Paul Stenner 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127083 Liminal moods and sense-making under conditions of uncertainty <p>Researchers have begun to recognize the importance of intuition and strategies of affectively grounded sense-making, specifically in the context of late modern societies which are characterized by high degrees of uncertainty, risk and rapidly changing environments. In fact, affectivity has been considered one of the most central features of today´s permanently liminal forms of life. However, the roles of different varieties of affective experience have not yet been fully taken into consideration. Drawing from Gilbert Simondon´s theory of individuation, we here focus on moods specifically and develop a theoretical perspective on how moods functionally contribute to situated sense-making under conditions of uncertainty. We thereby hope to contribute to solving some of the problems psychologists keep having with mood experiences. At the same time, we think that our approach will prove fruitful for studying processes of sense-making in undecided and open (social) environments</p> Markus Wrbouschek Thomas Slunecko Copyright (c) 2021 Markus Wrbouscheck, Thomas Slunecko 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127084 John Dewey’s Critical Anticipations of Personality Psychology <p>A brief introduction to the developmental history of personality psychology is given. Two trends, the clinical, holistic approach and the experimental, elemental approach, lay the foundation for issues that would confront the field into the present. While the accepted mandate has been the study of the whole person, the experimental paradigm has been hegemonic. Emphasis has been placed on knowledge of individual differences across variety of abstract constructs. The person and the situation, two central concepts, have been decreed independent, alternative, competing factors in accounting for individual conduct. John Dewey’s psychology, based on organicism and personenvironment mutualism, is presented as challenging basic assumptions and theories of personality psychology. For Dewey, personality is a product of individuals being incorporated into the sociocultural milieu that is their life context, and from which they cannot be disengaged. Kritische Psychologie is discussed as sympathetic to some of Dewey’s propositions.</p> Brad Piekkola Copyright (c) 2021 Brad Piekkola 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127085 “As a vegetarian, we never do well enough” <p>Food is an area that receives little attention from psychologists, despite the fact that it provides many interesting situations and dilemmas through which human activity and development can be examined. Currently – at least in the WEIRD (western, educated, industrial, rich and democratic) countries (Henrich et al., 2010), – these activities are an important object of normative discourses and injunctions about how we should behave as consumers and how we should eat, notably when it comes to products of animal origin and meat in particular. In these countries, a large majority of people regularly consumes meat. Vegetarianism can be seen as a deviant behavior to this norm (Boyle, 2011), that provokes reactions as it questions the taken-for-granted normality and necessity of meat consumption (Larue, 2015). However, the issue of meat consumption also intersects with many other normative discourses, such as the imperatives to be an ethical consumer or to be a hedonist. In this paper, I examine how people orient themselves in relation to these norms and possibly take distance from some of them. More specifically I propose to do so through the notion of positioning. Position and positioning are notions that are increasingly used and discussed in psychology. The theorization of these notions is recent, and thus quite disparate (Gülerce et al., 2014), although a few scholars worked on possible synthesis of different traditions (Gillespie &amp; Martin, 2014; Raggatt, 2015). I argue that examining positioning processes in relation to normative discourses and behaviors constitutes a way to understand the relation between the person and some social norms, and that this use will also contribute to deepen the conceptualization of positioning. I draw on empirical work conducted with people who recently changed their habits of consumption of food of animal origin. The questions I examine are: how do people position themselves in the normative and contested world of consumption of food of animal origin, and what are the processes possibly allowing them to question and transgress the norms in this area.</p> Fabienne Gfeller Copyright (c) 2021 Fabienne Gfeller 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127087 Young people’s sharing of sexualized digital imagery <p>The ubiquity of smartphones and social media has introduced new ways of being connected and engaged in digitally mediated spaces, including the possibilities of exchanging private sexualized digital imagery – a practice known as ‘sexting’. In this paper, we study the ways in which young people’s engagement in both consensual and non-consensual sexting practices is facilitated – and sometimes even accelerated – by technology. Our study is based on focus group interviews with young people aged 16-21, 6 months of digital ethnography on social and digital media, and posts concerning sexting written by young people on Danish counselling websites. We draw on perspectives from postphenomenology and new materialism in order to focus on human-technology interactions and how digital technologies shape social processes and interactions when young people exchange sexualized digital images and videos. We attend to the ways the affordances of social media (e.g., spreadability, ephemerality and persistence) facilitate and mediate young people’s sharing of sexualized imagery and how the affects emerging through these processes produce intensities, fantasies and intimacies, which both motivate and accelerate these practices. Our analyses seek to refine current understandings of young people’s production and sharing of sexualized digital imagery. Moreover, we argue that there is a need for further development of psychological concepts and analyses that can adequately grasp the nuances of the complex digital and visual intimate, social, sexual processes of young people’s lives and advance the research field of sexting among young people.</p> Penille Kærsmose Bøegh Rasmussen Morten Birk Hansen Mandau Copyright (c) 2021 Penille Kærsmose Bøegh Rasmussen, Morten Birk Hansen Mandau 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127088 Resistance through participation <p>After 21 years under a violent military dictatorship, institutions’ democratization processes took place in Brazil in the past three decades, starting from the Constitution of 1988. As one of the actors in the struggles for democracy, psychologists whose practices are committed to its consolidation in different contexts are constantly facing challenges due to the contradiction between government´s democratic discourses and its authoritarian practices - which tends to be increasingly constant with the rise of a far-right government to the power. This scenario demands, more than ever, that Brazilian Psychology liberates itself from uncritical conceptions to build decolonizing foundations and practices for strengthening and expanding people´s agency. Considering school as an everyday life context for people in the early stages of development, we understand this place as a privileged space for the intervention of psychologists. We intend to share in this presentation some reflections built from participatory action research on how psychologists can promote the participation of students in school. We argue that, in a context of constant attacks to people’s rights, creating conditions for children to recognize and expand possibilities of action to conduct their everyday lives, as well as producing science that supports it, is a great form of resistance and contribution Psychology can make in such dark days.</p> Jacqueline Meireles Raquel Souza Lobo Guzzo Copyright (c) 2021 Jacqueline Meireles, Raquel Souza Lobo Guzzo 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127089 Queering Kritische Psychologie <p>This paper aims at connecting the Berlin school of Critical psychology with queer feminist theories by focusing on the concept of condition-meaning-reason (Bedingungs-Bedeutungs-Begründungsanalyse, BBBA). To this end, we will first discuss basic aspects of the BBBA concept, which forms an important analytical tool of German Critical psychology. Second, we will present possible connecting lines to queer feminist approaches. In so doing, we will argue that the concept of conditions offers links to feminist theories of New Materialism and (Neo)Marxist Critique. The concept of meaning contains parallels to the Foucauldian concept of discourse, which is central to Butler’s theories of performativity and various subsequent queer feminist schools of thought. In turn, the concept of reason provides an opportunity to understand why subjects who live in similar material conditions and social constellations of meaning act differently. The fictional example of single mothers serves to illustrate the facets of the BBBA concept and the condition/meaning/reason analysis. In this way, we want to emphasise the potential of Critical psychology for queer feminist approaches and break new ground methodologically by integrating the previously divergent insights of Marxist, poststructuralist and psychosocial critiques.</p> Lisa Malich Tanja Vogler Copyright (c) 2021 Lisa Malich, Tanja Vogler 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127090 New Materialism, Technophilia and Emancipation <p>The aim of this paper is to reflect on psychological, ethical and political implications of new materialisms (Barad, Bennett, Coole, Frost) in the context of expanded and accelerated regimes of measurement as part of a technological governance of the human. As new materialists are committed to both epistemic and political emancipation, I first analyse theoretical, in particular epistemological, foundations of new materialism. The new materialism has achieved liberating epistemic effects in criticizing self-referential discursive and socio-constructionist agendas. It argued instead for a return to material and somatic realities. However, I examine whether its flat ontology, its epistemology of de-differentiation of the human and non-human, even non-living agencies and commitments into a principle of immanence, provide appropriate means to critically assess ethical and political implications of entanglements of humans with the historically- produced technologies and social worlds in general. The next question to be discussed is whether a return (nevertheless a discursive one) to material and somatic realities can in itself protect those very vulnerable realities. As horizontal ontology invokes a horizontal normativity which cannot serve as a foundation for emancipatory projects, it follows that normativity needs other sources beyond the new materialism paradigm. Thus, I argue that such a weak or insecure position of normativity within the new materialisms affects any concept of human subject, regardless of its entanglements, and any project of emancipation. I conclude these critical analyses by claiming that the new materialism’s epistemological and political emancipatory promises cannot be fulfilled by means provided by the new materialism itself.</p> Gordana Jovanović Copyright (c) 2021 Gordana Jovanović 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127091 Subjectivity and? <p>The aim of the paper is to give a brief presentation of an approach to developing the conception of subjectivity in psychology. This conception is developed on the background of the science of the subject of critical psychology as founded by Holzkamp (1983) which considers subjectivity as a core concept in human psychology. In the conception presented in this paper, it is argued that human subjectivity must be grasped as grounded in a subject’s ongoing situated participation and conduct of everyday life in and across various, structurally arranged social practices. It is argued why such a conception of subjectivity is necessary and its main concepts are briefly presented. A critical identification of methodological and conceptual inadequacies in narrower notions of the psyche and subjectivity paves the way for the line of arguments leading to this broader conception of subjectivity.</p> Ole Dreier Copyright (c) 2021 Ole Dreier 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 1 1 10.7146/irtp.v1i1.127092