HERMES - Journal of Language and Communication in Business 2018-07-04T11:26:30+02:00 Helle Dam Jensen & Patrick Leroyer Open Journal Systems Contents 2018-07-04T11:26:30+02:00 - Editors 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introduction to the Thematic Section: Expertise and Behaviour: Aspects of Cognitive Translation Studies 2018-07-04T11:26:28+02:00 Petra Klimant Michael Tieber Hanna Risku No abstract 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metalinguistic Knowledge/Awareness/Ability in Cognitive Translation Studies: Some Questions 2018-07-04T11:26:27+02:00 Sandra L. Halverson <p align="LEFT"> </p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Throughout the history of contemporary Translation Studies, theoretical, empirical and pedagogically oriented work has made use of a range of notions that assume a translator’s metalinguistic knowledge, or knowledge <em>about </em>language, rather than knowledge <em>of a language or languages</em>. Examples include ideas such as ‘translation strategies’, translational ‘problem-solving’, ‘the monitor model’ and models of translator competence. Issues related to learning, automatization, and consciousness also figure in many of the discussions. At the same time, studies in bi- and multilingualism and second (and third) language acquisition have also developed a range of related ideas and concepts to deal with some of the same issues and concerns in bi- and multilingual language production more broadly (see e.g. Jessner 2006: 40-43). Some recent translation process studies have begun to target questions related to metalinguistic awareness (e.g. Ehrensberger-Dow/Künzli 2010, Ehrensberger-Dow/Perrin 2009) while the underlying assumptions of some of the commonly used ideas are also being questioned (e.g. Muñoz Martín 2016a). The range of available ideas, the significant differences between them, and the increasingly important role these ideas are playing in cognitive translation research mandate a critical look at this conceptual field. </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">In this paper, I present some current views on metalinguistic knowledge/awareness/ability within the bi- and multilingualism and second language acquisition (SLA) literature, and compare these to some of the most widely used constructs in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS). The aim is to clear the conceptual ground and to single out some of the most pressing questions to be addressed regarding this particular aspect of translational cognition.</span></p><p align="LEFT"> </p><p> </p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fascinatin’ Rhythm – and Pauses in Translators’ Cognitive Processes 2018-07-04T11:26:25+02:00 Ricardo Muñoz Martín Celia Martín de Leon <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt;"><span style="color: #221f1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">The Monitor Model fosters a view of translating where two mind modes stand out and alternate when trying to render originals word-by-word by default: shallow, uneventful processing vs problem solving. Research may have been biased towards problem solving, often operationalized with a pause of, or above, 3 seconds. This project analyzed 16 translation log files by four informants from four originals. A baseline minimal pause of 200 ms was instrumental to calculate two individual thresholds for each log file: (a) A low one – 1.5 times </span><span style="color: #211d1e; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">the median pause <em>within </em>words – and (b) a high one – 3 times the median pause <em>between </em>words</span><span style="color: #221f1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">. Pauses were then characterized as short (between 200 ms and the lower threshold), mid, and long (above the higher threshold, chunking the recorded activities in the translation task into <em>task segments</em>), and assumed to respond to different causes. Weak correlations between short, mid and long pauses were found, hinting at possible different cognitive processes. Inferred processes did not fall neatly into categories depending on the length of possibly associated pauses. Mid pauses occurred more often than long pauses between sentences and paragraphs, and they also more often flanked </span><span style="color: #211d1e; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">information searches and even problem-solving instances. Chains of proximal mid pauses marked cases of potential hesitations. Task segments tended to happen within 4–8 minute cycles, nested in a possible initial phase for contextualization, followed by long periods of sustained attention. We found no evidence for problem-solving thresholds, and no trace of behavior supporting the Monitor Model.</span></p><p> </p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Cognitive Aspects of Competence in Sign Language Interpreting of Dialogues: First Impressions 2018-07-04T11:26:23+02:00 Elisabet Tiselius <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt;"><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">Sign language interpreting of dialogues shares many features with the interpreting of dialogues between non-signed languages. We argue that from a cognitive perspective in dialogue interpreting, despite some differences between the two types of interpreting, sign language interpreters use many of the same processes and handle similar challenges as interpreters between non-signed languages. We report on a first exploration of process differences in sign language interpreting between three novice and three experienced Swedish Sign Language interpreters. The informants all interpreted the same dialogue and made a retrospection of their interpreting immediately after the task. Retrospections were analyzed using tools for identifying reported processing problems, instances of monitoring, and strategy use (see Ivanova 1999). Furthermore, the interpreting products (both into Swedish Sign Language and into Swedish) and their differences were qualitatively analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences between the two groups, both in terms of the retrospective reports and in terms of the interpreting product. As expected, monitoring seems to be a factor determined by experience. The experienced interpreters seemed to have more efficient ways of handling turn taking and the internalization of new vocabulary. The study also concludes that to use instruments devised for simultaneous conference interpreting (Ivanova 1999; Tiselius 2013), the instruments need to be adapted to the dialogue setting, even though in the case of sign language interpreting the simultaneous interpreting technique is used even in dialogue interpreting.</span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Testing Indicators of Translation Expertise in an Intralingual Task 2018-07-04T11:26:21+02:00 Bogusława Whyatt <p align="LEFT"><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="color: #221e1f; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">Massey/Ehrensberger-Dow (2014) showed that the focused use of external resources, more frequent but shorter pauses, and fast text production speed correlated with the level of translation experience in participants translating a text from English into German. This paper aims to: (1) investigate whether these indicators distinguish professional translators from trainees and language students who translated from English into Polish, and (2) test which indicators are also present in an intralingual task, i.e., when paraphrasing a text. Additionally, task duration and the quality of the target texts produced by the three groups are compared with a view to expand the list of indicators of translation expertise. The data discussed here come from the ParaTrans research project in which professional translators, translation trainees and language students translated and paraphrased comparable texts. </span><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">The results confirm that the less frequent use of external resources, shorter problem-solving pauses, fast text production and high quality target texts are strong indicators of expertise in translation. The number of problem-solving pauses was the only parameter found to distinguish professionals from trainees and language students in the paraphrasing task. This suggests that translation expertise perceived as a general construct can be seen as encompassing task expertise: the ability to reformulate meaning (transferable to a paraphrasing task) and the domain knowledge expertise inclusive of the ability to efficiently use bilingual knowledge when producing a translation</span></span></span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creativity and Translation Quality: Opposing Enemies or Friendly Allies? 2018-07-04T11:26:13+02:00 Ana Rojo Purificación Meseguer <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt;"><span style="color: #211d1e; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">In recent years, placing the translator’s agency at the fore of creativity research has drawn the scholars’ attention towards the need to define the role of individual personality traits in creativity in the translation process. But many questions still remain as to the role that a creative personality may play in the translation process and the final quality of translation performance. The study proposed here specifically aims to investigate the consequences of a creative profile for translation performance. The experiment correlates the scores of forty Spanish professional translators on a validated creativity personality test with their scores on product indicators of creativity. Translations were rated for accuracy and creativity by two different examiners. Results of the study suggest that creative intelligence plays a role in guiding translational behaviour, directing the translator’s attention and fostering flexible thinking, but does not necessarily guarantee higher quality in terms of number of translation errors.</span></p><p> </p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Levels of Explanation and Translation Expertise 2018-07-04T11:26:11+02:00 Gregory M. Shreve <p><span style="font-family: Calibri;">The observable activity of translation, the series of text comprehension and text production bursts we identify as translation, is the result of the activation of complex underlying cognitive systems. In the conduct of research it is often useful to approach such complex systems using a ‘levels of explanation’ framework. This paper considers David Marr’s (1982) three levels of explanation as they might apply to understanding translation and translation expertise more robustly. In cognitive translation studies to date, we have not really extended our understanding of expertise much past the second (algorithmic/representational) level in Marr’s scheme; we have failed to grapple as effectively as we might with the problem of how the second generation computationalist expertise constructs we adopted almost twenty years ago could be integrated with, for instance, connectionist neural network models of the mind, creating a third generation of expertise models. This paper offers some frameworks laying out how that end might be achieved using, for instance, symbolic connectionism and implementational connectivism. Further, it argues that given the overtly symbolic nature of translation language processing, cognitively-oriented translation scholars are uniquely suited to benefit from approaches that bridge the divide between symbol processing models and connectionist ones.</span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Culture, Competence and Intercultural Competence: Global and Local Diversities in Intercultural Discourse 2018-07-04T11:26:19+02:00 Ariadna Strugielska Katarzyna Piątkowska <p> </p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt;"><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">Despite the plethora of definitions and models of intercultural competence (IC), researchers still face challenges, among which bridging gaps between worldwide trends and local flows in intercultural discourse appears to be an essential goal if definitions and models of IC are to be exhaustive. The present paper summarizes trends in approaches to competence, culture and IC as presented in two types of discourse, global and local, pointing to incongruities between the two viewpoints. An analysis of intercultural research reveals that as opposed to global discourse, which is holistic in nature, local discourse is more modular. It remains an empirical question how these two discourses, and the centripetal and centrifugal forces that come with them, will permeate each other. Thus, the analysis highlights the need to enhance communication among researchers in order to manage multiple approaches, both global and local, and incorporate them into intercultural discourse.</span></p><p> </p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Forms of Hybridity in Travel Blogs 2018-07-04T11:26:17+02:00 Patrizia Anesa <p> </p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">The technological revolution has changed considerably not only the way people travel and but also how they narrate their experiences. In this respect, the analysis of travel blogs can offer insights into the discursive and communicative practices which characterize this hybrid genre. </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">This study is based on the investigation of a corpus of highly visited travel blogs and aims to observe their hybridity from a multitude of perspectives. More specifically, hybridity is seen in terms of genre, (a)synchronicity, collaboration, modes of communication and level of multimodality, style, orientation, levels of subjectivity and pragmatic functions. </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">From a lexical perspective, specific attention is devoted to evaluative adjectives. In particular, the use of adjectives belonging to conceptual classes such as ‘assessment’ or ‘deviance’ is a widespread tool to express the blogger’s subjectivity and may assume different communicative and pragmatic functions.</span></p><p> </p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Nuances of Brand Personality: A Corpus-assisted Linguistic Analysis of Web-based Communications of Fashion Brands 2018-07-04T11:26:15+02:00 Belinda Crawford Camiciottoli <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">The ability to establish a particular brand personality (i.e. a set of human personality traits that consumers associate with a brand) is a key component of fashion brand management and communication. A given fashion brand may use language that communicates different personality traits (e.g. <em>glamourous, exciting, youthful, exotic</em>) as a way to define its own personality and distinguish itself from other fashion brands. Based on a corpus consisting of company-produced texts collected from the websites and Facebook pages of over 100 fashion brands, this study aimed to determine which traits of brand personality emerge, which are the most frequent, and which nuances of meaning can be identified within them. This was accomplished by means of text analysis software that identifies statistically significant semantic domains to which conceptually-related lexical items are assigned. The analysis revealed 14 key semantic domains that were linked to various brand personality traits. Among the most prominent were <em>Judgement of appearance: Positive, Time: New and young</em>, <em>Relationship: Intimacy and sex, </em>and <em>Unexpected</em>, highlighting not only the traditional importance attributed to attractiveness, but also to sensuality and non-conventionality as desirable traits of fashion brand personality. Other distinctive traits that emerged as significant involved exclusivity (encoding the value of elitism) and iconicity (emphasizing high stature and uniqueness). The study offers insights into how fashion brands utilize web-based communications to convey brand personality. It also offers a useful methodology that fashion companies can adapt to ensure that they are effectively communicating the intended brand personality.</span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Translating Terminology in Business Annual Reports (English-Arabic) 2018-07-04T11:26:10+02:00 Khalfan S. Al Obaidani <p><span style="font-family: Calibri;">Business annual reports are financial statements that contain key information about a company’s activities. The reports are distributed to interested parties (e.g. stockholders, creditors, financial analysts and customers) to satisfy their information requirements. In Oman, annual business reports are produced in English and translated into Arabic in order to provide Arab readers with vital information about the companies’ operations and their financial positions. This article analyzes lexical variations, i.e. financial and business terminologies in both English and Arabic versions of the annual reports. A comparison between the English and Arabic profiles of the reports found that the business terms, e.g. ‘currents assets’, ‘asset impairment’ and ‘changes in equity’ showed less variation than others that occurred more dominantly in earlier Arabic translations. This article contributes to the discipline of Translation Studies (TS) by investigating lexical variations of business terms within sociocultural and ideological contexts in Oman. It attempts to answer the following question, ‘with respect to business and financial terms, do the Arabic versions of the annual reports reflect the notion of standardization over the course of time in specific industrial domains?’ Qualitative methods are applied to compare, describe, and analyze the textual profiles of the two versions of the reports. It concludes that the Arabic business and financial terms have become more widely established over the course of time, thus reflecting the notion of standardization. Finally, this article suggests to integrate textual analysis with sociological input to have more insight into translation agents.</span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring the Attitudes and Expectations of Iranian Audiences in Terms of Professional Dubbing into Persian 2018-07-04T11:26:06+02:00 Saeed Ameri Masood Khoshsaligheh <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">For more than seven decades, dubbing has been the dominant professional modality for overcoming language barriers in foreign movies and TV series in Iran and has been revered as a national art. Although limited, some recent work has explored Persian dubbing reception and to continue this endeavor, this study attempts to offer further insights into how the Iranian viewers perceive dubbing, translation for dubbing and what they expect from dubbing. More precisely, the study aims at examining how the Iranian audiences view dubbing and particularly its agents and translation. To these ends, a questionnaire including open and closed items was designed. The overall results revealed that translation quality was considered considerably less important than the technical issues related to the dubbing production, such as voice-acting and synchronization. The findings also suggested that the performance of dubbing actors and dubbing directors was regarded more important than the contribution of translators. Overall, these findings seemed to indicate that the Iranian viewers’ appreciation of a dubbed program is mainly guided by non-translation issues including the performance of the dubbing actors and the accuracy of the relevant synchronizations.</span></span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Problem-based Learning in Computer-assisted Translation Pedagogy 2018-07-04T11:26:08+02:00 Christopher D. Mellinger <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt;"><span style="color: #221e1f; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">This article discusses problem-based learning (PBL) and its potential application to computer-assisted translation (CAT) pedagogy. Problem-based learning is situated in the CAT classroom as a final course component in which students challenge their previously-acquired knowledge and skill sets to solve unique, ill-defined problems that mirror those encountered in the language industry. This constructivist approach to education is designed to empower students to be self-directed, collaborative learners and to foster critical thinking and reflection. Moreover, problem-based learning is a means to encourage professional behavior and to develop skills beyond the mere use of translation technologies. This article explores the potential advantages and disadvantages of this educational approach as documented in related professional fields. In addition, the article addresses the ways in which problems are designed and implemented in the translation classroom, with a discussion of how they can and should be aligned with course learning objectives. The article concludes with a discussion of ways students’ work ought to be assessed to enhance gains often seen in PBL environments.</span></p> 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Publications received 2018-07-04T11:26:04+02:00 - Editors 2018-06-11T09:32:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##