HERMES - Journal of Language and Communication in Business 2021-04-21T02:23:20+02:00 Helle Dam Jensen & Patrick Leroyer Open Journal Systems Entrepreneurship in translator and interpreter training 2021-04-21T02:23:20+02:00 Anabel Galán-Mañas Anna Kuznik Christian Olalla-Soler 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anabel Galán-Mañas, Anna Kuznik, Christian Olalla-Soler Entrepreneurial Potential of Students Graduating from Translation Studies 2021-04-21T02:23:06+02:00 Katarzyna Klimkowska Konrad Klimkowski <p>Entrepreneurship is becoming a central issue in social, economic and educational policies globally. It is classified among the key assets that a contemporary university graduate needs to successfully enter the labour market – as an employee or a freelancer. Academic students who specialize in translation care about how their education translates onto their career. In this article, the authors present results of the research on how a selection of 436 Polish students of full-time translation courses perceive their future professional functioning in a hard and a soft-skill perspectives. The diagnostic procedure developed in the article can be of use to translation curricula designers and teachers in getting to know what their students think about being entrepreneurial translators. The data presented also show where educational interventions can be in place. A list of suggested didactic activities to exemplify such interventions is also provided.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Katarzyna Klimkowska, Konrad Klimkowski Translation and Interpreting as a Profession: Some Proposals to Boost Entrepreneurial Competence 2021-04-21T02:23:16+02:00 Ana Muñoz-Miquel <p>Increasing automation and the emergence of new needs and forms of communication are triggering a redefinition of the role and work settings of translators and interpreters. For this reason, and with a view to enhancing employability, students need to be aware of the range of professional profiles they can pursue and the value they can bring to society. The aim of this paper is to put forward a series of teaching proposals aimed at promoting entrepreneurial competence. After presenting the results of an exploratory study of students’ views of the profession, it proposes some activities that are considered particularly useful for fostering entrepreneurial competences.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Muñoz-Miquel Moving towards Entrepreneurial Translator Education: a Review of Entrepreneurship Competence in Spanish Translator Education Programmes 2021-04-21T02:23:03+02:00 Maite Veiga Díaz <p>This paper reviews the entrepreneurship competences included in the curricula of undergraduate translation and interpretation degrees in Spain to determine whether they explicitly or implicitly match the competences included in the EntreComp framework. Our review reveals that the EntreComp entrepreneurial competences are underrepresented in current curricula in Spain, with some remarkable exceptions, particularly regarding the ‘resource management’ and ‘learning by doing’ competences. The SWOT analysis performed using the results derived from the descriptive analysis of the collected data suggests that the spotted strengths and opportunities can compensate for most of the weaknesses. Accordingly, it is our claim that an entrepreneurial approach to education that is compatible with the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan can be introduced in Spanish translator education programmes within the current framework.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maite Veiga Díaz Proposal to Improve Employability and Facilitate Entrepreneurship among Graduates of the Master’s Degree in Institutional Translation of the University of Alicante 2021-04-21T02:23:00+02:00 Analía Cuadrado-Rey Lucía Navarro-Brotons <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The aim of this article is to describe the strategies included in our proposal to improve employability and facilitate entrepreneurship among graduates of the Master’s Degree in Institutional Translation. Firstly, this paper takes as a starting point the survey data collected by the Technical Unit for Quality Assessment (UTC) at the University of Alicante. This data shows the evaluation done by the graduates of the Master’s Degree in Institutional Translation on the competences preparing them for graduate labour market outcomes and entrepreneurship. Secondly, it explains the different curricular and extracurricular activities, as well as elective subjects, which are either being carried out at the moment or to be implemented in the future, so that students can develop the competences that the translator’s profession requires. The paper also mentions the role played by each institutional party involved in this collaborative action and proposes measures to consolidate and further develop the initiative.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Analía Cuadrado-Rey, Lucía Navarro-Brotons Empowering Translators through Entrepreneurship in Simulated Translation Bureaus 2021-04-21T02:22:57+02:00 Gys-Walt van Egdom Kalle Konttinen Sonia Vandepitte, María Fernández-Parra Rudy Loock Joop Bindels <p>This paper reviews entrepreneurial activities that take place within the simulated translation bureaus of member institutions of the INSTB network and establishes a link between entrepreneurism, self-efficacy and perceived competence. Reusing pre-test and post-test data of a student survey, a first attempt is made to design and test a survey instrument for gauging the impact of a simulated translation bureau on perceived entrepreneurial competence and self-efficacy for planning, setting up, and managing a translating organisation in pedagogical translation company simulations. Tentative results suggest a positive effect of participation in translation company simulation modules on students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy and perceived competence. Because of the anonymity of the data, pre-test and post-test responses could not be paired. As a consequence, the statistical significance of the results could not be confirmed.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gys-Walt van Egdom, Kalle Konttinen, Sonia Vandepitte,, María Fernández-Parra, Rudy Loock, Joop Bindels Building Pre-professional Identity during Translator Education – Experiences from the Multilingual Translation Workshop at the University of Turku 2021-04-21T02:22:54+02:00 Pia Salo Outi Veivo Leena Salmi <p>Against the backdrop of the constantly changing professional environment, translator education needs to invest in the work readiness and employability of its graduates. This article explores translation students’ emerging professional identity, referred to here as pre-professional identity (PPI) and its relevance for enhancing work readiness.. For this purpose, we have examined self-reflective essays written by translation students participating in a translation business simulation as part of their MA studies. The findings suggest that, in order to support students in building PPI, to facilitate the transition to the labour market, and to foster employability, it is useful to provide students with pedagogical approaches based on <strong>experiential learning </strong>combined with opportunities for critical self-reflection.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pia Salo, Outi Veivo, Leena Salmi Entrepreneurship in Interpreting: A Blue Ocean Strategy Didactic Toolkit for Higher Education Interpreter Training 2021-04-21T02:22:52+02:00 Elena Aguirre Fernández Bravo María Dolores Guindal Pintado <p>This article aims at presenting the reader with a didactic proposal for training higher education interpreting students in entrepreneurial skills by means of introducing a toolkit based on the Blue Ocean Strategy marketing theory. First, the reasons why entrepreneurship is necessary and should thus be an integral part of the interpreting curriculum will be put forward. Second, the Blue Ocean Strategy and its special suitability for the interpreting market will be argued. Third, the transposition of this theory into the interpreting classroom will be explained, with a focus on the approach and development of the lesson plan and didactic materials, which were devised on the basis of a flipped learning teaching methodology. Fourth, the results of the pilot implementation of this toolkit in the dialogue interpreting course <em>Interpretación II: Técnicas de mediación intercultural</em>, a 6 ECTS B.A. in Translation and Interpreting course at the Universidad Pontificia Comillas (Madrid), will be discussed by way of analysing 45 responses to questionnaires designed with the purpose of shedding light on whether perceptions of the interpreting market substantially differ among students who made part of the experimental group that took the Blue Ocean Strategy pilot class (18 subjects) and the control group (27 subjects), who did not receive training in this marketing strategy.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elena Aguirre Fernández Bravo, María Dolores Guindal Pintado Transcreation as a Way to Promote Employability in Translation Training: Adding Value to Translation Training 2021-04-21T02:22:49+02:00 Marián Morón Martín <p>An overview of the current professional translation industry shows that translation, in general, seems to be accommodating changes in the labor market and in society with relative ease. However, the scope, limits and boundaries of translation are a matter of academic and professional concern (Mayoral 2001; Tymoczko 2005/2007; Koskinen/Dam 2016; Dam et al<em>. </em>2018), with some viewing the identity of translation somehow jeopardized by the great variety of professional translation-related services and practices encountered within the field (Gambier 2016; Koskinen/Dam 2016; Dam et al. 2018). It is true that services now associated with translation, such as technical communication (Risku 2004), transcreation, postediting or multilingual copyrighting (Mangell et al. 2019) are closely interrelated, sometimes even being identified as translation per se (Gambier 2016; Dam et al. 2018), despite the fact that no linguistic transfer even occurs. This paper will address the experience of trainee participants in a transcreation project developed at the University Pablo de Olavide in Seville (Spain). The project was an attempt to introduce transcreation, defined by the LSP industry as a service of added value, and initiate students in inventiveness and creative translation, while creatively enhancing translation graduates’ employability (Rojo/Meseguer 2018: 79). Despite the assumed role of universities as providers of employability skills, this initiative also aims to add value to translator training, adopting an open, creative and boundaryless approach when dealing with employability issues in translators’ training (Calvo 2010; Morón 2010; Kuznik 2016; Calvo 2018). The boundaries within and around the translation profession (Koskinen/Dam 2016) are tackled, through students completing simulated professional practice and self-reflection (Kiraly 2013/2016; Leggot/Stapleford 2004a/b). A qualitative and analytical approach will be adopted, presenting the final assessment results from trainee participants during Stage 1 of project implementation, as well as real testimonies of graduates and professionals reflecting on the impact the initiative has on trainees’ employability.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marián Morón Martín Fostering Employability through Versatility within Specialisation in Medical Translation Education 2021-04-21T02:22:46+02:00 Ana Muñoz-Miquel Vicent Montalt Isabel García-Izquierdo <p>The current increase of automation (Rodríguez 2017; Massey/Wieder 2018) and the emergence of new needs and forms of communication are triggering substantial changes in the translation profession, in the role of the translator and in translator education. Previous studies (Muñoz-Miquel 2014, 2016a, 2018) have shown the rich variety of tasks — beyond those traditionally considered — that medical translators perform in the workplace, including heterofunctional translation, editing, or community management. The ability to develop new skills and to adapt continuously to the changing needs of the market is one of the essential characteristics of the translator in the 21st century. That is why we consider it of critical importance that, together with specialisation, versatility is promoted in translator education. In this article, we explore the notion of versatility and propose a teaching strategy that incorporates it and can contribute to improving the employability of future translators. Specifically, we put forward some pedagogical proposals for the English-Spanish language combination that promote diversification of competences and tasks within a narrow specialisation — the medical and healthcare field — in order to provide (future) translators with the versatility necessary to respond to new demands and thus be more employable. Our approach is based on the results of surveys of professional medical translators on the tasks and roles they perform, as well as on our own teaching experience in a master’s degree programme in medical translation.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Muñoz-Miquel, Vicent Montalt, Isabel García-Izquierdo Training in Deontological Requirements of Interpreters Dealing with Refugees: International Protection as an Opportunity for Social Entrepreneurship in Translation and Interpreting Studies in Spain 2021-04-21T02:22:43+02:00 Estela Martín-Ruel <p>Having noted the entrepreneurial reluctance of graduates in general and T&amp;I graduates in particular in Spain, we propose social entrepreneurship in the field of international protection and refugees as a potentially viable employment opportunity. The ever-growing number of asylum seekers arriving in Spain have a recognised right to access translation and interpreting services, and we therefore advocate the training of interpreters to operate in asylum scenarios and meet the specific deontological requirements involved therein. Future professionals need to be equipped with all the tools necessary to be able to handle the different challenges that may arise in such situations. To this end, we present the results of a series of interviews conducted with refugee reception organisations in the province of Seville, the capital of Andalusia which is one of the regions in the EU which handles the highest number of immigrant arrivals. The situations experienced in these organizations may reflect the state of the question in the asylum field. We found that the application of professional ethics in real-case situations is indeed very often deficient, and its inclusion in training syllabuses in the country could help address this social need.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Estela Martín-Ruel The Professional Profile of a Post-editor according to LSCs and Linguists: a Survey-Based Research 2021-04-21T02:23:12+02:00 Clara Ginovart Cid <p>The boundaries between translation technologies are fading and language professionals are heading towards a pluri- and transdisciplinary job description, for which the use of CAT tools, translation management systems, and machine translation (MT) are compulsory. “Language paraprofessionals”, “paralinguists”, “language consultants”, “digital linguists”, and a long list of other titles is emerging to refer to the professionals who master a number of features of several tools, while remaining attentive to linguistics (see Bond 2018). According to TAUS DQF Dashboard data presented in TAUS Newsletter the 1st of May of 2019, the industry averages show that 9.7% of the translation output origin comes from MT and that 1,057 words per hour are post-edited on average. This has clear repercussions on the profession from the employability perspective.With 66 submissions by LSCs and industry stakeholders, and 142 answers from individuals (in-house or freelance translators), we present the most salient subject matters from and for the translation industry regarding MT post-editing. Some represent gaps to be filled; others represent common ground already found. Thanks to this up-to-date knowledge of the globalization landscape, clear goals can be set, and the way is paved for evolution.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Clara Ginovart Cid Applying Service-Dominant Logic to Translation Service Provision 2021-04-21T02:22:40+02:00 Minna Kujamäki <p>Translation is commonly regarded as a service both in translation industry and within Translation Studies (TS), but the question of what <em>makes </em>translation a service has not been widely explored. This conceptual paper looks at non-literary translation as a service, applying a paradigm of Service-Dominant S-D logic (S-D logic) to the field. Practices in translation service provision are analysed using the Facilities-Transformation-Usage framework (FTU framework), designed on the premises of S-D logic, as a tool. The paper shows that translation practices in general comply with this theoretical perspective, making translation, by definition, a service, and opens a window into the aspects that make it a service. Some current practices in the field do not, however, meet the criteria of an <em>ideal </em>service. These practices are discussed briefly in order to pinpoint, from the service theoretical point of view, where the problems lie.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Minna Kujamäki Galileo and the Enigma of -ic/-ical Adjectives: New Techniques to Meet Old Challenges 2021-04-21T02:22:38+02:00 Ma Lidong Sven Tarp <p>One of the challenges that non-native speakers are facing when writing in English is the use of the suffixes <em>-ic </em>and <em>-ical </em>in connection with a big number of adjectives. L2 learners, even at a high proficiency level, sometimes have doubts about the form they should use in a concrete context. Other times they are simply not aware that they have a problem. The article will look at the assistance they can get in traditional dictionaries as well as some of the new digital writing assistants. It will analyze and classify adjectives ending in <em>-ic </em>and <em>-ical </em>and try to detect some trends that may be relevant for learners at different levels. It will then propose a multidimensional solution that can be incorporated into a digital writing assistant. The proposal includes various types of assistance, even to writers who are not aware of any problem. It also has a pedagogical dimension that makes it particularly relevant to non-native learners of English.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ma Lidong, Sven Tarp Words at Work: The Dynamics of Company-Speak in the Work Place 2021-04-21T02:23:09+02:00 Dardo de Vecchi <p>This paper outlines the pragmaterminological approach of terms in companies and organizations as an efficient way to study situated, dynamic elements conveying sense and meaning for knowledge and communication purposes in the workplace, and making up what we will call company-speak. Broadly speaking, we will define company-speak as the specific sociolect used in a specific company or organization to work and do business and reflecting the ongoing construction of its own knowledge, corporate culture, and identity. Company-speak is truly unique and every single company or organization will develop its own company-speak that competing companies or organizations operating in the same sector or branch of activity cannot and will not use. Particularly, the pragmaterminological approach aims at answering the question of what exactly has to be known to work at micro-level in work communities, and how knowledge must be shared to cope with knowledge asymmetries and ensure cooperation between experts within the company or organization.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dardo de Vecchi María del Mar Sánchez Ramos 2020. Documentación digital y léxico en la traducción e interpretación en los servicios públicos (TISP): fundamentos teóricos y prácticos. Berlín: Peter Lang. 184 pages. ISBN 978-3-631-80849-8 2021-04-21T02:22:35+02:00 Lorena Pérez Macías 2020-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lorena Pérez Macías