Erhvervshistorisk Årbog https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa Erhvervshistorisk Årbog beskæftiger sig primært med dansk erhvervslivs historie efter 1750, men er åben over for artikler med andre emner, der har erhvervshistorisk relevans. da-DK <p>Ophavsret til artikler publiceret i Erhvervshistorisk Årbog er fastlagt i henhold til den modelaftale, <strong>License to publish</strong><em>,</em> som UBVA har offentliggjort under rubrikken <strong>Ophavsret og forskningspublicering</strong>. Indsendelse af en artikel til Erhvervshistorisk Årbog indebærer en accept af dette. Modelaftalen kan findes ved hjælp af dette link: <a title="blocked::http://www.ubva.dk/Forside" href="http://www.ubva.dk/Forside">http://www.ubva.dk/Forside</a></p><p> </p> kt@sa.dk (Kenn Tarbensen) kt@sa.dk (Kenn Tarbensen) tor, 13 jun 2019 16:35:55 +0200 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Milton Friedman om pengepolitik – en skelsættende Presidential Address fra 1967 https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114782 <p>I december 1967 leverede Milton Friedman sin Presidential Address til den amerikanske økonomsammenslutning, AEA, med titlen ’The Role of Monetary Policy’. Heri diskuterede Friedman, hvad pengepolitikken kan og ikke kan. I sin diskussion inddrog han en ny Phillipskurve tankegang; i dag traditionelt benævnt for det forventningsforhøjede Phillipskurvediagram. Set i et tilbageblik udgør denne tale et skelsættende bidrag i den makroteoretiske udviklingshistorie. Ikke alene indvarslede bidraget monetarismens komme, den lagde også fundamentet for den efterfølgende ny-klassiske tænkning med dennes fokusering på optimalitet og en regelbaseret økonomisk politik. I artiklen redegøres der dels for indholdet i Friedmans tale, dels sættes dette i et moderne makroteoretisk perspektiv.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Milton Friedman and his Presidential Address ‘The Role of Monetary Policy’ (1967)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In December 1967, Milton Friedman delivered his famous Presidential Address at the annual meeting of the AEA titled ‘The Role of Monetary Policy’. In his presentation Friedman discussed what monetary policy can do and what it cannot do. In doing so, he also presented a modern view on the Phillips curve. In hindsight, his Presidential Address became a seminal contribution to the later development of both Monetarism and the New Classical theory. In the present article, the content of Friedman’s Address as well as its consequences for modern macroeconomics is highlighted and discussed.</p> Finn Olesen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114782 tor, 13 jun 2019 15:55:52 +0200 Hovedstadsmetropolens brand- og ambulancevæsen. Kommunale og private aktører i lyset af regionale udfordringer siden 1850 https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114788 <p>Fra natvægterstaten i den sidste halvdel af 1800-tallet og frem til efterkrigstidens velfærdstat blev det private initiativs aktionsfelt indsnævret stadig mere. Det gjaldt bl.a. på velfærdsområdet, den kollektive trafik og forsyningssektoren. Som en basal samfundstjeneste har brand- og ambulancetjenesten stedse været en kommunal myndighedsopgave, men gennem 1900-tallet blev den i stigende grad overladt til private aktører. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan dette aktørmønster satte sig igennem i hovedstadsmetropolen, og hvorledes brand- og ambulancevæsenets kom til at udgøre en blandt stadig flere udfordringer, som metropolen som en byregion kom til at stå overfor i århundredet.</p> <p>---</p> <p>The History of the Capital Metropolitan Fire and Ambulance Service in the Copenhagen-area since 1850</p> <p>The history of the capital metropolitan fire and ambulance service since the mid-19th century became a story that came to play on three simultaneous levels:</p> <p>Although the emerging welfare state settled on the solution of increasingly fundamental societal tasks throughout the 20th century, it did not apply to the fire extinguishing service in the capital metropolis and elsewhere in the country. It changed from the 20s to a greater extent to the private initiative, the country's two private rescue corps, until the service in the first post-war period found its fairly fixed distribution. Falck's Rescue Corps thus came to perform the service in significant parts of the capital metropolitan suburbs and catchment areas, while the municipal fire departments remained dominant in the places where they had built up consolidated and thus competitive fire services: The Capital, on the inner West and Amager, and in the northern suburbs of Gentofte.</p> <p>The ambulance service to and from the capital metropolitan hospitals started from the middle of the 19th century as a private haulage mission. For a short period of time it was handed over to charities, and then continued on a private initiative via the country's two rescue corps and then Falck alone. A consequence of the hospital service in the majority of the city region was left to the county municipalities, and these could neither or would take on this additional operational task. Where the municipal fire service had efficient and competitive ambulance services, however, this was municipal-run. It concerned the Capital, Gentofte and Roskilde with the hinterland</p> <p>While the capital municipalities and county municipalities' responsibility for the ambulance service meant that a uniform regional management of this was found in the capital metropolis, and this was left to relatively few municipal and private actors, the fire extinguishing service came to constitute an increasingly regional challenge: In line with that character of an ever-expanding and increasingly integrated city region, which the capital metropolis gained through the 20th century, and as a result of the responsibility of the fire service was divided among the two capital cities and a large number of suburban municipalities. In the absence of a municipal regional body to deal with the capital metropolitan's regional challenges, the city region's fire extinguishing service also moved among these. A challenge that at the end of the 30s formed the basis for some inter-municipal cooperation. A co-operation as first the Capital City Councils Consultation, “Hovedstadskommunernes Samråd” and since the Capital Council, “Hovedstadsrådet”, through the post-war period tried to translate into a closer coordination of the fire service in the inner part of the capital metropolis.</p> <p>In the light of the changed international political conditions in the years around 1990 could an integration of the state civil defense and municipal preparedness be carried out. In the inner capital metropolis, this led to some coordination of the municipal and Falck-driven fire departments, but it was not until 2016 that a real and complete integration of the emergency preparedness and its actors in the capital metropolis was carried out as in the rest of the the country.</p> <p>With the joint municipal emergency preparedness, a partly regional integration of the capital metropolitan municipal and Falck's fire services has been provided. In the inner part of the capital metropolis, it is carried out municipal by the The Preparedness of Capital, “Hovedstadens Beredskab”, while in the other joint municipal preparedness it is handled by both municipal equipment and personnel and by Falck, who is the dominant player here and is largely autonomous in the ambulance area.</p> <p>In 2019 it emerged that Falck had fabricated a criticism of a competing private rescue company, Dutch Bios, operating the ambulance service in Southern Denmark. This company then had to give up the task and leave it to the regional authority. On this basis regional authorities elsewhere in Denmark have considered depriving Falck of driving ambulances and carrying out the task themselves. The question is whether the communal municipal fire services will do the same?</p> Henning Bro ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114788 tor, 13 jun 2019 16:23:15 +0200 Kakkelovne, kundegods og køkkentøj fra Morsø Jernstøberi – omvæltning og strategi hos A/S N.A. Christensen & Co. 1950-1993 https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114789 <p>I artiklen redegøres der for de store omvæltninger, som de danske ovnstøberier, eksemplificeret ved jernstøberiet A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co. på Mors, gennemgik i løbet af perioden 1950 til 1993. I disse årtier måtte branchen gang på gang forholde sig til nye udfordringer forårsaget af samfundsmæssige ændringer og teknologiske fremskridt. A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co., bedst kendt under navnet Morsø Jernstøberi, var et af de få ovnstøberier, der klarede sig igennem branchens forandringer. Det skete ikke mindst, fordi virksomhedens ledelse i begyndelsen af 1960’erne formåede at omstille produktionen fra den hidtidige hovedproduktion af klassiske kakkelovne til det hjemlige marked til en fremstilling af køkkentøj, isenkram og kundegods, som for størstedelens vedkommende blev eksporteret. Da oliekrisen i 1970’erne igen gjorde de klassiske ovne til fast brændsel populære blandt forbrugerne, lykkedes det endnu engang A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co. at omstille sig. I artiklen undersøges det, hvorfor netop støberiet på Mors klarede sig gennem omvæltningerne, og der konkluderes, at årsagen skal findes i en kombination af både virksomhedens langsigtede strategier, dens strategiske evne til at tilknytte den rette ledelse samt disse lederes evne til med kortsigtede strategier at reagere på de udfordringer, støberiet undervejs blev mødt af.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Stoves, finished goods and kitchenware from Morsø Iron Foundry – Change and strategy at N.A. Christensen &amp; Co. 1950 -1993</p> <p>This article explains the radical changes that the Danish stove foundries, illustrated by the iron foundry A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co. on Mors, underwent in the period 1950 to 1993. During these decades the industry had to relate to new challenges caused by social changes and technological advances. A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co., better known as Morsø Iron Foundry, was one of the few stove foundries that survived the changing industry. This was not least because the company’s management succeeded in changing the main production line in the early 1960s from classic stoves for the domestic market to a production of kitchenware, hardware, and finished goods for other companies, which was mainly exported. When the oil crisis of the 1970s re-established the popularity of classic stoves, A/S N.A. Christensen &amp; Co. once again succeeded in reorganising the company. This article questions why this particular foundry managed to survive a period of upheaval in the industry, and it deduces that the reason is found in a combination of both the company’s long-term strategies, its strategic ability to engage the right management, and the management’s ability to respond with short-term strategies to the challenges the company faced in this period.</p> Anders Have Espersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/114789 tor, 13 jun 2019 16:29:10 +0200