Erhvervshistorisk Årbog https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa Erhvervshistorisk Årbog beskæftiger sig primært med dansk erhvervslivs historie efter 1750, men er åben over for artikler med andre emner, der har erhvervshistorisk relevans. Rigsarkivet da-DK Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 0071-1152 <p>Ophavsret til artikler publiceret i Erhvervshistorisk Årbog er fastlagt i henhold til den modelaftale, <strong>License to publish</strong><em>,</em> som UBVA har offentliggjort under rubrikken <strong>Ophavsret og forskningspublicering</strong>. Indsendelse af en artikel til Erhvervshistorisk Årbog indebærer en accept af dette. Modelaftalen kan findes ved hjælp af dette link: <a title="blocked::http://www.ubva.dk/Forside" href="http://www.ubva.dk/Forside">http://www.ubva.dk/Forside</a></p><p> </p> Mindeord over Jørgen Fink https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123610 <p>Tidligere seniorforsker ved Erhvervsarkivet, dr.phil. Jørgen Fink afgik ved døden 8. september 2020 efter længere tids sygdom. Rigsarkivets forskningsleder, seniorforsker, dr.phil. Hans Schultz Hansen, Rigsarkivet Aabenraa, og seniorforsker, ph.d. Kenn Tarbensen, Rigsarkivet Viborg, har skrevet dette mindeord til hans ære.</p> Hans Schultz Hansen Kenn Tarbensen Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 1 2 Erhverv og den lille bys modernitet – indledning https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123612 <p>Dette nummer af Erhvervshistorisk Årbog er et temanummer, der er blevet til i et samarbejde mellem Dansk Center for Byhistorie og Rigsarkivet. Temaet er ”Erhverv og den lille bys modernitet”. Samarbejdet er inspireret af seminaret ”Den lille bys historie 1850-2000”, der blev afholdt 23. januar 2020 i Den Gamle By i Aarhus. Foredragene her viste det frugtbare i at anskue mindre byers udvikling i et modernitetsperspektiv, herunder et grundigt blik på betydningen af erhverv i bred forstand. Både købstæder, stationsbyer og andre mellemstore byer er de mest typiske i vores historie, men på flere måder også oversete. Her giver redaktørerne først en lille introduktion.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Modernisation and the small urban scale</p> <p>The typical Danish, or Nordic, city is rather small for international standards, but none the less a central part of our urban history. The urban small scale has been object of some Danish research in recent decades, for example the so-called railway town, the suburb or the informal settlement. The history of the small city is closely intertwined with the modern, both in terms of infrastructures and the concentrations of trade and population brought along with them, but also with the state welfare reforms standardizing municipal territories. However, as the articles in this issue shows, there is more potential in the history of the small urban scale, and stimulating this is the intention with its publication.</p> Mikkel Thelle Kenn Tarbensen Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 3 5 Kalk og byer. Råstofudnyttelse og byudvikling i Faxe-området, især ca. 1850-1900 https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123613 <p>Denne artikel handler både om byhistorie og erhvervshistorie, men hovedvægten ligger på det første, idet hensigten er at belyse hvilken betydning den store ekspansion for kalkbrydningen i Østsjælland i anden halvdel af 1800-tallet fik for den gamle landsby Faxe og den nye bebyggelse Faxe Ladeplads. De to lokaliteter repræsenterer forskellige typer blandt de mange byer, der voksede frem i løbet af 1800-tallet. Artiklen indledes og afsluttes derfor med diskussioner af bytypologi, og inden for denne ramme er der først en redegørelse for hovedlinjerne i historien om udnyttelsen af Faxe-kalken, især i 1800-tallet, og derefter en analyse af befolknings- og erhvervsstrukturerne og den sociale spredning i de to byer i 1880 og 1901.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Lime and towns. Utilization of the subsoil and urban development in the Faxe region in southeast Zealand, especially between c. 1850 and 1900</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to give an account of the rapid development of the lime production in a region of Eastern Zealand after c. 1850 and to discuss its importance for two towns in this area: the medieval village Faxe and the new Faxe Ladeplads.</p> <p>Both of them belong to the large group of Danish towns arising in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Usually these towns are called “station towns”, as their early development was often connected with the establishing of a railway station. However, in some of the new towns a rapid growth only set in many years after the construction of the railway. In other places urban development was in progress before the railway was built. This applies to Faxe and Faxe Ladeplads, where stations on the Køge-Faxe Ladeplads railway were opened in 1879. But at that time Faxe had already nearly 1000 inhabitants, several shops, a book trade, an iron foundry, a doctor and a printing house, publishing among other things a local newspaper – just like a small market town. Moreover, a substantial part of the people in Faxe worked in the limestone quarries, where the production had greatly increased since the 1840s. Especially the construction of a special railway between the quarries and the beach (1864) and of two harbours (1863-1870) highly stimulated the production of limestone and slake lime. These infrastructure improvements also formed the basis of Faxe Ladeplads, where transshipment of the lime products took place. Even in 1870 Faxe Ladeplads had only 113 inhabitants, but ten years later the population was 328 people, in 1901: 679 and in 1930: 1363. Faxe also experienced substantial growth in this period to 1158 inhabitants in 1901 and 2015 in 1930.</p> <p>By analyses of the censuses and local assessment lists from 1880 and 1901 the article throws light on the urbanization process of the two towns with special reference to occupational structure and&nbsp; social stratification. It appears that Faxe during the last decades of the 19<sup>th</sup> century developed a more differentiated economic life with a considerable number of trades, for example some typical urban businesses as clockmaking and confectionery. Moreover, Faxe acquired several institutions, for instance one of the few hospitals in the county of Præstø. All things considered, Faxe was by 1900 rather well-equipped with economic and administrative functions, servicing not only the inhabitants in the town, but also people in the surrounding rural parishes. In this way Faxe fits quite well into the central place model, which focuses on the relations between a town or city and its hinterland.</p> <p>In contrast, the development of Faxe Ladeplads was – especially in the early years – highly marked by the connection with other ports in Denmark and abroad. Therefore it is reasonable to characterize Faxe Ladeplads as a gateway according to the network model, which stresses the importance of contacts and mutual influence between towns and cities without regard to the distance between them. However, Faxe Ladeplads did not remain a “mono-cultural” town like many other gateways. Already at the turn of the century a number of trades were established in the new town as well as the first schools and a hotel, and many industries, institutions and tourist facilities followed in the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Though, quarrying, working up and transport of limestone still are of very much importance to Faxe and Faxe Ladeplads.</p> Jørgen Mikkelsen Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 6 31 Håndværksmestre i den lille by 1880-1921 – netværk og relationer blandt Ringkøbings førende borgere https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123615 <p>Denne artikel er en undersøgelse af håndværkets sociale situation i den lille by under forandring i årtierne omkring 1900. 172 borgere i seks erhvervssektorer i den vestjyske købstad Ringkøbing identificeres som byens elite over tre punkter i tid, og ved identifikation af forskellige typer af forbindelser imellem dem kortlægges sociale strukturer i netværksanalyser. Emnets bredere anlagte forskning opererer med håndværkets gradvise integration i byernes øvrige kultur i perioden, sådan at mestrene efterhånden stod på linje med de øvrige arbejdsgivere. Den tætte undersøgelse i Ringkøbing bekræfter denne udvikling, men den nuancerer den også. I 1880’erne stod håndværkets mænd kun i begrænset grad i relation til købmænd, sagførere, bankdirektører osv. I 1921 havde de mange flere kontakter. Imidlertid: Når disse relationer opdeles i familie, fadderskaber, interessefællesskaber og forretning, viser det sig, at den gamle handels- og embedselite uden håndværksmestre i nogen grad bestod. Den fik selskab af nye grupper, der udnyttede nye muligheder, og som talte en række håndværksmestre. Disse gamle og nye grupper stod i tæt forbindelse i foreningsbestyrelser, valglister og efterhånden også i økonomiske relationer, men integrationen var ufuldstændig. De mødtes ikke i familie eller fadderskaber.</p> <p>--</p> <p>Master Craftsmen in the Danish Small Town 1880-1921 – Elite Network and Relations in Ringkøbing</p> <p>This article is an investigation into the social situation of craft in a small market town in the decades around 1900. 172 townsmen in six lines of trade and profession are identified as the elite in the Western Jutland town of Ringkøbing, and ties and connections between them are identified. Using social network analysis, relations among them are mapped. The more general Danish research on the field gives rise to an expectation of gradual integration in the small town elite and an evolving alliance between master craftsmen and other employers. A closer look into Ringkøbing confirms this hypothesis but introduces light and shade. In 1880, men of the crafts had only a few ties to merchants, solicitors, and bank managers. By 1921, they had many more contacts. However, when their relations are categorised according to family, sponsorship, common interest, and business, it appears that an old elite of trade and civil service endured to some extent while new groups, master craftsmen included, took advantage of new possibilities. These old and new elites were in contact in civil societies, electoral registers and eventually by business relations, but their integration was incomplete. They did not form ties of family or sponsorship.</p> Christian Ringskou Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 32 66 Husholdningssagens betydning for den lille bys modernitet – kvinders uddannelse og erhverv inden for husholdning 1890-1940 https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123616 <p>Frem til 1900-tallet havde danske kvinder kun få uddannelsesmuligheder. Men de samfundsmæssige forandringer, der fulgte med moderniteten, påvirkede kvinders dengang dominerende beskæftigelse inden for husholdning og førte til nye uddannelsesmuligheder inden for dette område.&nbsp; Husholdningssagen voksede således frem i slutningen af 1800-tallet som en flersidig argumentation for at gøre husholdning til et videns- og uddannelsesområde, der skulle sikre kvinders uddannelsesmuligheder og folkets sundhed.&nbsp; Fra starten af 1900-tallet blev der etableret mange husholdningsskoler landet over, særligt i landområder og omkring de mindre byer. Skolerne var meget søgte og sikrede kvinder en uddannelse og en levevej.</p> <p>Sådanne udviklinger kan ses som båret frem af flere forskellige tidsrelaterede forhold og fik i sig selv indflydelse på disse. Det gælder forhold som den gryende velfærdsstats ideer om uddannelse til alle, et ændret arbejdsmarked, kampen for kvindefrigørelse og ligestilling, og endelig også perioder med fødevare- og ressourceknaphed. I artiklen fokuserer vi på perioden fra 1890 til 1940, fordi den udgør en særlig periode i husholdningsuddannelsernes og -skolernes historie. Vi analyserer, hvad husholdningssagen betød for modernitetens indtog i de mindre byer og vurderer herunder også dens betydning i et klasse- og kønsperspektiv</p> <p>---</p> <p>The Importance of Home Economics in a Small Town Perspective of Modernity. Women’s Education and Occupation in Home Economics</p> <p>Until the early 1900s, women in Denmark had only few educational opportunities. However, the societal changes that accompanied modernity also brought changes and education into the lives of women, who by then were predominantly working as homemakers. The movement of home economics emerged in the late 1800s as a multifaceted argument for making home economics an area of ​​knowledge and providing education for women, who did not until then have such opportunities, and provide better health for the population. From the early 1900s, several schools of home economics appeared all over the country, especially in rural areas and in areas of the smaller towns. The schools became very popular and ensured women an educational and an occupational pathway.</p> <p>Several&nbsp; factors contributed to and influenced this development. Such factors included the nascent welfare state's ideas about education for all, changes of the labour market, the women's liberation movement and struggle for equality, and periods of scarcity of food and resources due to the wars of the time. Focusing on the period 1890 to 1940, we analyse how the home economics movement contributed to modernity in the smaller towns and consider its significance in a class and gender perspective.</p> Karen E. Andreasen Annette Rasmussen Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 67 91 Med B&O i baghaven – den moderne fabriksby under lup https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123617 <p>Den moderne fabriksby undersøges i artiklen med udgangspunkt i boligområdet B&amp;O-byen. B&amp;O-byen opstod omkring Bang &amp; Olufsens første radiofabrik fra 1927 og voksede særligt i 1960-70’erne, hvor virksomheden også ekspanderede, og der kom mange tilflyttende medarbejdere til området. Jeg peger i artiklen på, at det levede liv og hverdagen kan bidrage med væsentlige karaktertræk til forståelsen af den moderne fabriksby, hvor et oplevet fællesskab og en immateriel kultur kan supplere de karakteristika, der typisk fremhæves ved fabriksbyer: Virksomheders aktive deltagelse i byplanlægningen og deres patriarkalske rolle i det omkringliggende samfund er træk, der kendes fra 1800-tallets klassiske <em>company towns</em>, og som trækker tråde op i moderne fabriksbyer. Det ses for eksempel ved de markante virksomheder i Billund, Nordborg og Munkebo, der afslutningsvis perspektiveres til i artiklen. Det særlige ved B&amp;O-byen er, at de typiske træk omkring byplanlægning og virksomhedens lokale rolle ikke viser sig tydeligt der. Undersøgelsen af netop B&amp;O-byen gennem interviews med stedets beboere kan derfor være med til at tydeliggøre den rolle det levede liv og hverdagen kan have som et supplerende og væsentligt væsenstræk for den moderne fabriksby.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Life in the B&amp;O Town – A close look at the modern factory town</p> <p>In this article, the modern factory town in Denmark is investigated through a study of the residential area the B&amp;O-byen (B&amp;O Town) in Struer in northwest Jutland. In 1927 the radio company Bang &amp; Olufsen build its first factory and the residential area emerged around it. The B&amp;O Town grew fast in the 1960-70s as B&amp;O expanded, and a lot of newcomers came to the area to work and live.</p> <p>Based on the study, I suggest that everyday life can contribute with important characteristics to the understanding of the modern factory town as experienced community and intangible culture is shown to supplement and add to the characteristics typical to factory towns: The involvement of companies in urban planning and a patriarchal role in local community are characteristics known from nineteenth century company towns which can also be identified in modern factory towns. This is e.g. present in Billund, Nordborg and Munkebo – hometowns of LEGO, Danfoss and Lindøværftet. These three towns are considered in the concluding discussion on the concept of the modern factory town.</p> <p>In the case of the B&amp;O Town the well-known characteristics of the company’s involvement and role are not very present. Accordingly, the study of the B&amp;O Town based on Oral History-interviews with residents can contribute to elucidate how the role of everyday life can provide supplementary and substantial characteristics on the modern factory town.</p> Helle Nissen Gregersen Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 92 113 Sommerhusbyer og typesommerhuse. Efterkrigstidens sommerhusbyggeri i hovedstadsmetropolen https://tidsskrift.dk/eaa/article/view/123618 <p>I dag rummer Danmark næsten en kvart mio. sommerhuse, knapt en halv mio. danskere har med den nuværende gennemsnitlige husstandsstørre adgang til et sådant, og et endnu større befolkningssegment har mindst en gang i livet opholdt sig i et sommerhus. Det på trods har forskningen i en historisk sammenhæng kun i mindre grad beskæftiget sig med den bymæssighed, der kom ud af det omfattende sommerhusbyggeri. Med det udgangspunkt sættes til denne artikel fokus på sommerhusbyen som et småbyfænomen i hovedstadsmetropolens åbne opland i efterkrigstiden, og hvorledes denne bydannelse særlig her, men også andre steder i landet, skabte grundlag for, at produktion og import af typesommerhuse blev en ny branche i bygge- og anlægssektoren.</p> <p>---</p> <p>Cottage towns and type cottages Post-war holiday home construction in the metropolitan metropolis</p> <p>Today, Denmark holds almost a quarter of a million. cottages, barely half a million Danes have access to one, and an even larger population segment has stayed in a holiday home at least once in their life. Despite this, in a historical context, the research has only to a lesser extent dealt with the urbanity that came out of the extensive cottage construction. With this in mind, this thematic issue of the Business History Yearbook on small towns and their businesses focuses on the cottage town as a small town phenomenon in the metropolitan metropolis' open hinterland in the post-war period, and how this town formation, especially here but also elsewhere in the country, created the basis for production and import of type holiday homes became a new industry in the construction sector.</p> Henning Bro Copyright (c) 2020 Erhvervshistorisk Årbog 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 69 1-2 114 150