Communication & Language at Work <p><em>Communication and Language at Work</em> is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on communicative and discursive practices relating to organizations. With a view to disciplines, the journal invites contributions navigating sociological and philosophical considerations of communication, knowledge, agency, and organization.</p> en-US <p>The journal is published under a Creative Commons license <em>Attribution Non-commercial No derivatives (cc by-nc-sa)</em> <a href=""><span style="color: #1f497d;"></span></a>.</p> (Klarissa Lueg) (Benjamin Eg) Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial for the 4th issue of “Communication and Language at Work – Bridging Theory and Practice” Editorial for the 4th issue of “Communication and Language at Work – Bridging Theory and Practice” Peter Kastberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Willingness to Communicate: Tracking Movement through Peer Assessment <p><em>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer assessment on willingness to communicate (WTC) among Iranian advanced EFL learners in the context of classroom. In order to serve the main purpose of the study, two groups of advanced learners participated in this study. Primarily, a pre-test was administered to both groups, then the participants of experimental group received a treatment of 10 sessions. In these sessions the participants assessed their peers according to the peer assessment form. On the other hand, the participants of control group did not receive any treatment. The quasi-experimental, pre-test, and post-test were applied to these two groups. The obtained data was analyzed with two sample independent t-test statistical methods. The results revealed a meaningful significant difference among Iranian advanced EFL learners' willingness to communicate of the participants who assessed their peer's performances, so peer assessment significantly affected their achievement in oral communication. Teachers deal with learners that are willing to communicate orally in their foreign language, while some learners do not use their foreign language, even with high linguistic competence. Peer assessment can be a good form of assessment to enhance willingness to communicate among EFL learners.</em></p> Sahar Niknejad, Behzad Nazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Articulation Work: Insights into examiners' expertise from their remote feedback interactions <p>This study reports an exploratory reanalysis of data that was collected as part of an earlier project that focused on the remote feedback messages that passed between professional examiners working within an English awarding body<a title="" href="#_ftn1">[1]</a>. The examiners in this study are contracted by the awarding body to assess the examination performances of students at the end of a two-year course of study that is a precursor to entry to academic courses in UK Universities.</p><p>This paper takes its title from a play on the word ‘articulate’, which simultaneously references the notion of ‘expressing’ and Schmidt's (2011) concept of articulation as the coordination of interconnected work across individuals. In this way, the paper explores evidence that senior examiner feedback to other examiners embodies both codified and tacit elements of expert examiner work.</p><p>This project, involving 59 examiners from six post-compulsory education subject areas, uses observation, survey and interview methods to gather information about the characteristics of senior examiner feedback. Focusing specifically on senior examiners who generate feedback, analyses suggest that these feedback interactions give insights into overt and hidden functions of examiner work. As a consequence, the analyses carry implications for the on-going development of the examiner community and the development of expertise.</p><div><br clear="all" /><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div><p><a title="" href="#_ftnref1">[1]</a> In England, Wales and Northern Ireland educational qualifications are offered by awarding bodies that are recognised by the national body that regulates qualifications and examinations (the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation [Ofqual]).</p><p> </p></div></div> Martin Johnson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 English as a medium of instruction and internationalization at Danish universities: Status, perspectives, and implications for higher education executives <p><em>This</em><em> paper discusses possible policies to handle English as a medium of instruction for higher education (HE) in Denmark. It summarizes the de-facto status of the institutionalization of English as a lingua franca and EMI in Europe and relates the findings to the status quo of the academic and political discussion about EMI in Denmark. This discussion is classified into three typical approaches: the progressive, the conservative, and the radical conservative. The distinction is supplemented with the results of the author’s own recent study on EMI and the introduction of a fourth perspective: the ‘cautiously progressive perspective’. This perspective supports further introduction of EMI, on condition that careful attention must be given to the way EMI is implemented. </em><em>Possible lines of reactions, implications, and recommendations are introduced. These are relevant for university teachers that wish to encourage their students to participate in EMI classes and for university management and administration in order to provide the necessary conditions for a reasonable EMI use. They could further provide value for potential employers that support EMI education, especially in the field of communication. </em></p> Klarissa Lueg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Card Sorting as Collaborative Method for User-Driven Information Organizing on a Website: Recommendations for Running Collaborative Group Card Sorts in Practice <p>Card sorting is an easy-to-use, quick, inexpensive, yet powerful usability method for information organizing on a website as it generates usable input directly from end-users as to how they would expect to find information on a website. When run collaboratively in groups, the discussion between the users about the content of the cards and their relatedness provides valuable insight into the users’ mental models. Focusing on epistemic asymmetry in the group discussion, this article highlights important issues which may affect the outcome of group card sorting. It is demonstrated that group card sorting demands great attention from the test manager in relation to the composition of the group, i.e. the number of users per group and the users’ educational level and formal organizational positions, in order to ensure a result that is representative of the group as a whole.</p> Maria Friis Bjerre ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Impression management as symbolic capital: an intercultural comparison of presentations by CEOs on social network sites <p><em>Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this</em><em> paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German and the Danish markets. It is apparent that even business experts operating in both markets could better adapt to the standards and possibilities offered by the German SNS with respect to impression management. We introduce a set of recommendations to foster SNS-related and culture-sensitive impression management. </em></p> Klarissa Lueg, Camilla Nielsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Translation Techniques <p><em>In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.</em> <em></em></p> Marcia Pinheiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0200